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The conquest of Mecca, according to the scholars of Siyrah, took place in Ramadan in the 8th year of Hijra. In the Glorious Qur’an, Allah, Most High, says,

“Not equal among you are these who spent (freely) and fought, before the victory (with those who did later). Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all Allah promised a goodly (reward). And Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do. (Al-Hadid: 10)”

When comes the Help of Allah, and victory, and thou dost see the people enter Allah’s Religion in crowds, celebrate the Praises of thy Lord, and pray for His forgiveness: for His is Oft-Returning (in forgiveness). (AN-Nasr: 1-3)”

THE OCCASION OF THE CONQUEST OF MECCA

Despite the improved relations between Mecca and Medina after the signing of the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah, the ten-year peace was to be broken by Quraish who, with their allies, the tribe of Bakr, attacked the tribe of Khuza’ah where allies of the Muslims and when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) heard of the attack he immediately ordered his men to prepare fro was Later, the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) informed the men that he was going to Mecca and ordered them to make careful preparations. He said, “O Allah, take the eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise in their land.” Consequently, the men got themselves ready.

THE AFFAIR OF HATIB IBN ABI BATA’AH

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ubaid Allah Ibn Rafi that the later said, ‘I heard Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) say, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent me, Abu Marthad and Az-Zubair, and all of us were riding horses, and said, “Go until you reach Raudat-Khakh where there is a pagan women carrying a Mecca.” So we found her riding her camel at the place which Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had mentioned. We said (to Her), ‘(Give us) the letter.’ She said, ‘I have no letter.’ Then we made her camel kneel down and we searched her, but we found no letter. Then we said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had not told us a lie, certainly. Take out the letter, otherwise we will strip you naked.’ When she saw that we were determined, she put her hand below her waist belt, for she had tied her cloak round her waist, and she took out the letter, and we brought her to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Then Umar said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! (This Hatib) had betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers! Let me cut off his neck!’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked Hatib, “What made you do this?” Hatib Said, ‘By Allah, I did not intend to give up my belief in Allah and His Messenger but I wanted to have some influence among the Mecca people so that through it, Allah might protect my family and property. There is none of your Companions but has some of his relatives there through whom Allah protects his family and property.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “He has spoken the truth; do no say to him but good.” Umar said, ‘He as betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the faithful believers. Let me cut off his neck!’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Is he not one of the Badr warriors? May be Allah looked at the Badr warriors and said, ‘Do whatever you like, as I have granted Paradise to you, or said, as I have forgiven you. “On this, tears come out of Umar’s eyes, and he said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ ”

Therefore, Allah, Most High, had revealed the Surah that begins with.

“O Ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors), offering them (your) love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have (no the contrary) driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because ye believe in Allah, you Lord! If you have came out to strive in My way and to seek My good pleasure, Showing friendship into them in secret: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all that ye reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the straight path. (Al-Mumtahinah: 1)”

MUSLIMS GOES TO MECCA

On the 10th of Ramadan, 8 AH, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went on his journey and put over Medina Abu Ruham Kulrhim Ibn Hussayn. In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the latter said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) traveled in the month of Ramadan and he fasted until he reached (a place called) Usfan, then he asked for a tumbler of water and drank it by the daytime so that the people might see him. He broke his fast until he reached Mecca.’ Ibn Abbas used to say, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fasted and sometime did not fast while traveling, so one may fast or may not (on journeys).’ However, it should be note that the Muslims number was 100.00 men. 

ABU SUFIYAN EMBRACES ISLAM

Hisham’s father., according to Al-Bukhari, narrated that when Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out (towards Mecca) during the year of the Conquest of Mecca and this news reached the infidels of Quraish, Abu Sufyan, Hakim Ibn Hizam and Budail Ibn Warqa come out to gather information about Allah Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). They proceeded on their way until they reached a place called Marr-az-Zahran (which is near Meccah). Behold! There they saw many fires as if they were the fires of Arafat. Abu Sufyan said, ‘What is this?’ It looked like the fires of Arafat.’ Budail Ibn Warqa said, ‘Banu Amr are less in number than that.’

Some of the guards of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saw them and took them over, caught them and brought them to Allah’s Messenger. Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) proceeded he said to Al-Abbas, “Keep Abu Sufyan standing at the top of the mountain so that he would look at the Muslims.” SO Al-Abbas kept him standing (At that place) and the tribes with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started passing in front of Abu Sufyan in military batches. A batch passed and Abu Sufyan said. ‘O Abbas Who are these?’ Abbas said, ‘They are Banu Ghifar.’ Abu Sufyan said, ‘I have got nothing to do with Ghifar.’ Then a batch of the tribe of Juhaina passed by and he said similarly as above. Then a batch f the tribe Sa’d Ibn Huzaim passed by and he said similarly as above. Then Banu Sulaim passed by and he said similarly as above, Then came a batch, the like of which Abu Sufyan had not seen. He said, ‘Who are these?’ Abbas said, ‘They are the Ansar headed by Sa’d Ibn Ubadah, the one holding the flag.’

Sa’d Ibn Ubadah said, ‘O Abu Sufyan! Today is they day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in) the Ka’bah will be permissible.’ Abu Sufyan said, ‘O Abbas! How excellent the day of destruction is!’ Then came another batch of warriors which was the smallest of all the batches, and in it there was Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and his Companions and the flag of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was carried by Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam.

When Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed by Abu Sufyan, the latter said, (to the Prophet), ‘Do you know shat Sa’d Ibn Ubadah said?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “What did he say?” Abu Sufyan said, He said, ‘Today is they day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in) the Ka’bah will be permissible.’ On that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

“Sa’d told a lie, but today Allah will give superiority to the Ka’bah and today the Ka’bah will be covered with a (cloth) covering.” Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered that his flag be fixed at Al-Hajun.

Al-Bukhari also narrated that Urwah said that Nafi Ibn Jubair Ibn Mut’im said, ‘I heard AL-Abbas saying to Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam, ‘O Abu Abdullah! Did Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) order you to fix the flag here?’

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to enter Mecca from its upper from Ka’bah while the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) himself entered from Kuda. Two men from the cavalry of Khalid Ibn Al-Walid named Hubaush Ibn Al -Ash’ar and Kurz Ibn Jabir Al-Fihri were martyred on the day.

 

THE DESCRIPTION OF PROPHET’S ENTRY INTO MECCA

Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, ‘During the year of the Conquest Mecca, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca through Kada which was at the upper part of Mecca. Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) that the latter said that on the day of the Conquest, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca, wearing a helmet on his head. When he took it off, a man came and said, ‘Ibn Khatal is clinging to the curtain of the the Ka’bak.’ Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said “Kill him” Al-Bukhari moreover, narrated on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal that the latter said that I saw Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on the day of Conquest of Mecca over his she-camel, reciting Surat-al-Fath in a vibrant quivering tone. Mu’awiyah commented on this, saying, ‘Were I not afraid that the people may gather aroung me, I would recite in vibrant quivering tone as he (Abdullah Ibn Mughafal) did, imitating Allah’s Messenger.’

Muslims had been ordered by Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) not to cause any harm unless anyone tried to stop them entering. However, According to Ibn Ishaq Safwan Ibn Umayyah, Ikrimah Ibn Abi Jahl and Suhail Ibn Amr had called some men in Al-Khandama to fight. Himas Ibn Qays Ibn Khalid, brother of Ibn Bakr was sharpening his sword before the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca, and his wife asked him why he was doing so. When he told her it was for Muhammad and his companions she said that she did not think that it would do them any haram. He answered that he hoped to give hr one of them as a salve. Then he went to Al-Khandama with Safwan, Suhayl, and Ikrimah and when the Muslims under Khaild arrived a skirmish followed in which Kurz Ibn Jabir, one of the tribe of Muharib Ibn Fihr, and Hubais Ibn Khalid Ibn Rabi’ah Ibn Asram, and ally of the tribe of Munqidh, who were in Khalid’s cavalry, were killed. The had taken a road of their own apart from Khalid adn were killed together. Salamah Ibn Al-Mayla, one of Khalid’s horsemen, was killed, and the polytheists lost about 12 or 13 men; then they took to fight. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had instructed his Commanders when they entered Mecca only to fight those who resisted them, except a small number who were to be killed even if they found beneath the curtains of Ka’bah. Among them were Abdullah Ibn Sa’d Ibn Abi Sarh, Abdullah Ibn Khadl and Al-Huwairth Ibn Naqid Ibn Wahb Ibn Abd Qasa.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Abdullah that, ‘When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca on the Day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka’bah. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, “A Truth has come and falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear. ” Moreover, Al-Bukhari on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived at Mecca in the year of the Conquest while Usamah was riding behind him on (his she-camel). Al-Qaswa, Bilal and Uthman Ibn Talha were accompanying him. When he made his she-camel kneel down near the Ka’bah, he said to Uthman. “Get us the key (of the Ka’bah).” He brought the key to him and opened the gate of the Ka’bah, fro him. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), Usamah, Bilal and Uthman entered the Ka’bah and then closed the gate behind them from inside, The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed there for a long period and then came out. The People rushed to get in, but I went in before them and found Bilal standing behind the gate, and I said to him, ‘Where did the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pray?’ He said, ‘He prayed between those two front pillars.’ The Ka’bah was built on six pillars, arranged in two rows, and he prayed between the two pillars of the front row leaving the gate of the Ka’bah at his back and facing (in Prayer) the wall which faces one when one enters the Ka’bah. Between him and that wall (was the distance of about three cubits). But I forgot to ask Bilal about the number of Rakat (units in Prayer) the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had Prayed. There was a red piece of marble at the place where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had offered the Prayer.

Mujahid, according to Al-Bukhari, also reported that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up on the day the Conquest of Mecca and said,

“Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth, and it will remain a sanctuary by virtue of the sanctity Allah has bestowed on it until the Day of Resurrection. It (fighting in it) was not made lawful to anyone before me nor will it be made lawful to anyone after me, and it was not made lawful for me except for a short period of time. Its animals (that can be hunted) should no be chased, nor should its trees be cut, nor its vegetation or grass uprooted, not its Luqata (most things) picked up except by one who makes a public announcement about it.”

Al-Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib said, ‘Except the Idhkhir, O Allah’s Messenger, as it is indispensable for blacksmiths and houses.’ On that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) kept quiet and then said, “Except the Idhkhir as it is lawful to cut.” Abu Shuriah narrated that he said to Amr Ibn Sa’id while the latter was sending troops in batches to Mecca, ‘O chief! Allow me to tell you a statement which Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said on the second day of the Conquest of Mecca. My two ears heard it and my heart remembered it and may two eyes saw him when he said it. He (the prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) praised Allah and then said,

“Mecca has been made a sanctuary by Allah and not by the people, so it is not lawful for a person, who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood in it, or to cut its trees and if someone asks the permission to fight in Mecca because Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was allowed to fight in it, say to him, ‘Allah permitted His Messenger and did not allow you, and even he (the Messenger) was allowed for a short period of the day, and today its (Mecca’s) sanctity has become the same as it was before (of old) so those who are present should inform those who are absent (this Hadith).”

According to Al-Bukhari, Salim’s father narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent Khaild invited them to the tribe of Jadhimah and Khalid invited them to Islam but they could not express themselves by saying, “Aslamna (we have embraced Islam),” but they started saying “Saba’na! Saba’na (we have come out of one religion to another).” Khalid kept on killing (some of) them and taking (some of) them as captives and gave every one of us his Captive. When there came the day then Khalid orederd that each man should kill his captive, I said, ‘By Allah, I will not kill my captive, and none of my companions will kill his captive.’ When we reached the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), we mentioned to him the whole story. On that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) raised both his hands and said twice, “O Allah! I am free from what Khaild has done.” 

THE PROPHET’S STAY IN MECCA

The Scholars of Siyrah are unanimously agreed that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed the remaining days of Ramadan in Mecca shortening the Prayers and not fasting. in this context, Al-Bukhari narrated that Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said. ‘We stayed in Mecca for ten days along with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and used to offer shortened Prayed (journey prayers).’ Also Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed in Mecca for 19 days during which he prayed 2 Rak’at in each Prayer (that consists of 4 Rak’at, namely Zuhar, Asr and Maghrib Prayers).

THE PROPHET’S JUDGMENT DURING HIS STAY IN MECCA

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari reported some of the Prophet’s Judgement during his stay in Mecca, Following are some of his narrations:

Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said that Utbah Abi Waqqas authorized his brother Sa’d to take the sone of the slave-girl of Zam’ah into his custody, Utbah said ‘He is my son.’ When Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived in Mecca during the Conquest Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas took him to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Abd Ibn Zam’ah too came along with him. Sa’d daid, ‘This is the son of my brother and the latter has informed me that he is his son.’ Abd Ibn Zam’ah said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! This is my brother who is the son of the slave-girl of Zam’ah and was born on his Zama’ah bed.’

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) looked at the son of the slave-girl of Zam’ah and noticed that he, of all the people had the greatest resemblance to Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then said, to abd, “He is yours: he is your brother, O Abd Ibn Zam’ah, he was born on the bed of your father.” At the same time Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to his wife Sawadh, “Veil yourself before him (the son of the slave-girl) O Sauda,” because of the resemblance he noticed between him and Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) added, ” The boy is for the bed (for the owner of the bed where he was born), and stone is for the adulterer.” Urwah Ibn Az-Zubair reported that a lady committed theft during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in the Ghazwah of Al-Fath (Conquest of Mecca). Her folk went to Usamah Ibn Zaid to intercede for her (with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). When Usamah interceded for her with Allah’s Messenger, the color of the face of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) changed and he said, “Do you intercede with me in a matter involving one of the legal punishments prescribed by Allah?” Usamah said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Ask Allah’s Forgiveness for me.’ So in the afternoon, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up and addressed the people. He praised Allah as He deserved and then said,

“……… The nations prior to you were destroyed because if a noble amongst them stole, they used to excuse him, and if a poor person amongst them stole, they would apply (Allah’s) Legal punishment to him. By Him in Whose Hand Muhammad’s soul is, if Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad stole I would cut her hand.”

Then Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave his order in the case of that woman and her hand was cut off. Afterwards her repentance proved sincere and she got married. Aishah said, “That lady used to visit me and I used to convey her demands to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).”

On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of both men and women to testify that there is no god but Allah Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and to embrace Islam. According to Ahmad, the Messenger of (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of people to believe in Allah and to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

In the Glorious Qur’an, We read,

“Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee, that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery (or fornication)., that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood, and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter, then do thou receive their fealty, and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins): for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Al-Mumtahinah: 12) “

Majashi, according to Al-Bukhari, said, ‘I took my brother to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after the Conquest of the Mecca and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! I have come to you with my brother so that you may take a pledge of allegiance from him for migration.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “The people of migration (those who migrated to Medina before the Conquest) enjoyed the privileges of migration (there is no need fro migration anymore).” I said, to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ‘For what will you take his pledge of allegiance?’ Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “I will take his pledge of allegiance for Islam, Belief, and for Jihad (fighting in Allah’s Cause).”

Mujhid, likewise, said, ‘I said to Ibn Umar ‘I want to migrate to Syria.’ He said, ‘There is no migration, but Jihad for Allah’s Cause. Go and offer yourself for Jihad, and if you find an opportunity for Jihad (stay there) otherwise, come back,’ In an other narration, Ibn Umar said, ‘There is no migration today or after Allah’s Messenger.’ Then he completed his statement as above.

Ibn Abbas said, ‘Umar used to admit me along with the old men who had fought in the Badr battle. Some of them said, ‘Why do you allow this young man to enter with us, while we have sons of his own age?’ Umar said, ‘You know what person he is.’ One day Umar called tem and called me along with them, I had thought he called me on that day to show them something about me (my knowledge). Umar asked them, ‘What do you say about (the Surah) that reads,

“When comes the Help of Allah and the Victory, and thou dost see people enter Allah’s Religion in crowds. Celebrate the Praises of they Lord and pray for His forgiveness: for He is Oft-Returning (in forgiveness). (An-Nasr: 1-3) “

Some of them replied. ‘We are ordered to praise Allah and repent to Him if we are helped and granted victory.’ Some said, ‘We do not know.’ Other kept quiet. Umar then said ‘What do you say then? ‘I said, ‘This Qur’anic verse indicates the approaching of the death of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) of which Allah informed him. When comes the help of Allah and the Conquest, the Conquest of Mecca, that will be the sign of your Prophet’s approaching death, so testify the uniqueness of your Lord (Allah) and praise Him and repent to Him as He is ready to forgive.’ On that Umar said, ‘I do not know about it anything other than what you know.’

Amr Ibn Salamah said, ‘We were at a place which was a thoroughfare for the people, and the caravans used to pass by us and we would ask them, ‘What is wrong with the people> What is wrong with the People? Who is the man?’ They would say, ‘That man claims that Allah has sent him (as a Messenger), that he has been divinely inspired, and that Allah has revealed to him such-and-such.’ I used to memorize that (Divine) Talk, and feel as if it was inculcated in my chest (mind) and the Arabs (other than Quraish) delayed their conversion to Islam until the Conquest of Mecca. They used to say, ‘Leave him (Muhammad) and his people Quraish: if he overpowers them then he is a true Prophet. So, when Mecca was conquest, then every tribe rushed t embrace Islam, and my father hurried to embrace Islam before (the other member of) my tribe. When my father returned (from the Prophet) to his tribe, he said, ‘By Allah, I have come to you from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for sue!’ Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) afterwards said to them,

 “Offer such-and-such Prayer at such-and-such time, and when the time for the prayer becomes due, then one of you should pronounce the Azan (the call to prayer), and let the one amongst you who knows Qur’an most should, lead the Prayer.”

So the looked for such a person and found none who knew more Qur’an than I because of the Qurainc material which I used to learn form the caravans. They therefore made me their Imam (to lead the prayer) and at that time I was a boy of six or seven years, wearing a Burda (a black square garment) proved to be very short for me (and my body become partly naked). A lady from the tribe said, ‘Won’t you cover the anus of your reciter for us?’ So they bought (a piece of cloth) and made a shirt for me. I had never been as happy with anything before as I was with that shirt.’

 

According to Al-Bukhari, this battle is also called the battle of Al-Muraisi. It took place, according to Ibn Ishaq, in the 6th year of Hijra. Musa Ibn Uqbah, however, said, “It was in the 4th year of Hijra.” Az’Zuhari said, “The story of the forged statment against Ashah (may Allah be pleased with her) was during the battle of Al-Muraisi”

According to Ibn Ishaq, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) received news that Banu Al-Mustaliq were gathering together against him. Their leader was Al-Harith Ibn Abu Dirar, the father Juwairiyah, whom the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) married afterwards. On hearing about them, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went out and met them at a watering place of theirs called Al-Muraisi in the direction of Qudayd towards the shore. There was a fight and Allah put Banu Al-Mustahiq to flight and killed some of them and gave the Messenger their wives, children, and property as booty,

Al-Bukhari narrated that Abdullah Ibn Awn said, “I wrote a letter to Nafi wrote in reply to my letter that had suddenly attacked Banu Al-Mustaliq without warning while they were heedless and their cattle were being watered at the places of water. Their fighting men were killed and their women and children were taken as captives; the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got Juwairiyah on that day. Nafi said that Ibn Umar had told him the above narration and that Ibn Umar was in the army.”

Al-Bukhari also narrated that Ibn Muhairiaz said “I entered the Mosque and saw Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri and sat beside him and asked him about Al-Azl (coitus interruption). Abu Sa’id said, “We went out with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for the Ghazwah of Abnu Al-Mustaliq and we received captives from among the Arab captives and we desired women and celibacy become hard on us and we loved to do coitus interruption. So when we intended to do coitus interruption us, we said, “‘How can we do coitus interruption before asking Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who is present among us?’ We asked about it and he siad,

‘It is better for you not to do so, for if any soul (until the Day of resurrection) is predestined to exist.’ “

On they day of Banu AL-Mustaliq, a Muslim of Banu Kalb Ibn Awf Ibn Amir Aibn Layth Ibn Bakr was killed by a man of the Ansar of the family of Ubadah Ibn As-Samit who thought he was an enemy and killed him in error. Due to their hostility to Islam and Muhammad the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), the hypocrites tried to divide the Muslims and ruin their unity. However, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was keen enough to deal with their devices wisely.

THE STORY OF ‘IFK’

‘Ifk’ is an Arabic word that means ‘Iying’. Hear, it refers the forged statement against ‘Aishah, (may Allah be pleased with hem) which the hypocrite said. In the Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated the whole story of Ifk on the authority of Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said, “Whenever Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) intended to go on a journey, he used to draw lots amongst his wives, and Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to take with him the one on whom lot fell. He drew lots amongst us during one of the Ghazeat, which he fought. The lot fell on me and so I proceeded with Allah’s Messenger after Allah’s order of Hijab (veiling the women) had been revealed. I was carried (on the back of a camel) in my howdah and carried down while still in the (when we come to a halt). So we went on until Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had finished from that Ghazwah of his and returned.

When we approached the city of Medina, He announced at night that it was time for departure. So when they announced the news of departure, I got up and went away from the army camps, and after finishing from the call of nature, I come back to my riding animal. I touched my chest to find that my necklace, which was made of Zifar beads (Yemenite beads partly black and partly white), was missing. So I returned to look for my necklace and my search for it detained me. The people who used to carry me on camel came and took my howdah and put it on the back of my camel on which I used to ride, as they considered that I was in it. In those days women were light in weight for they did not get fat, and flesh did not cover their bodies in abundance as they used to eat only a little food. Those people therefore, disregarded the lightness of the howdah while lifting and carrying it; and at the time I was still a young girl. They made the camel rise and all of them left (along with it). I found my necklace after the army had gone.

Then I came to their camping place to find no call maker of them, nor one who would respond to the call. So I intended to go to the place where I used to stay, thinking that they would miss me and come back to me (in my search). While I was sitting in my resting-place, I was overwhelmed by sleep and slept. Safwan Ibn Al-Mu’attal As Sulami Adh-Dhakwani was behind the army. When he reached my place in the morning, he saw the figure of a sleeping person and he recognized me on seeing me as he had seen me before the order of compulsory veiling (was prescribed). So I woke up when the recited Istirja (Inna Lillahi wa inna llaihi raji’un”) as soon as he recognized me. I veiled my face with my head cover at once, and by Allah, we did not speak a single word, and I did not hear him saying any word besides his Istirha’. He dismounted form his camel and made it kneel down, putting his leg on its front legs and then I got up and rode on it. Then he set out leading the camel that was carrying me until we overtook the army in the extreme feat of midday while they were at a halt (taking a rest). (Because of the event) some people brought destruction upon themselves and the one who spread the Ifk (slander0 more, was Abdullah Ibn Ubai Ibn Salul.”

Oureah said, “The people propagateed teh slander and talked about it in his (Abdullah’s) presence and he confirmed it and listened to it and asked about it to let it prevail.” Urwah also added, “None was mentioned as members of the slanderous group besides (Abdullah) except Hassan Ibn Thabit and Mistah Ibn Uthatha nad Hamnah bint Jahsh along with others about whom I have no knowledge, but they were a group as Allah said. It is said that the one who carried most of the slander was Abdullah Ibn Ubai Ibn Salul.” Urwah added, ” Aishah disliked having Hassan abused in her presence and she used to say, ‘It was he who said: Myfather and his father and my honor are all for the protection of Muhammad’s honor form you.”)

Aishah continued, saying, “After we returned to Medina, I become ill for a month. The people were propagating the forged statements of the slanderers while I was unaware of anything of all that, but I felt that in my present aliment, I was not receiving the same kindness from Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) as I used to receive when I got sick. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) would only come, greet me and say, ‘How is that (lady)?’ and leave. That roused my doubts but I did not discover the evil until I went out after my convalescence, I went out with Umm Mistah to Al-Manasi where we used to answer the call of nature and we used not to go out (to answer the call of nature) except at night, and that was before we had latrines near our houses. And this habit of our concerning evacuating the bowels, was similar to the habits of the old Arabs living in the deserts, for it would be troublesome for us to take latrines near our houses. So I and Umm Mistah who was the daughter of Abu Ruhm Ibn Al-Muttalib Ibn Abd Manaf, whose mother was the daughter of Sakhr Ibn Amr and the aunt of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq adn whose son was Mistah Ibn Uthatha Ibn Abbas Ibn Al-Muttalib, went out. I and Umm Mistah returned to my house after we finished answering the call of nature. Umm Mistah stumbled by getting her foot entangled in her covering sheet and on that she said, ‘Let Mistah be ruined.’ I said, ‘What a hard word you have said. Do you abuse a man who took part in the battle of Badr?’ On that she said, ‘O you Hantah! Didn’t you hear what he said, ‘I said, “What did he say?’

They she told me the slander of the People of Ifk. So my ailment was aggravated, and when I reached my home, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) came to me, and after greeting me, said, ‘How is that (Lady)?’ I said, “Will you allow me to go to may parents?’ as I wanted to be sure about the news through them. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) allowed me (I went to my parents) and asked my mother, ‘O Mother! What are the people talking about?’ she said, “O my daughter! Don’t worry, for scarcely is there a charming women who is loved by her husband and whose husband has other wives besides herself that they would find faults with her. I said, ‘Subhan-Allah (Glory be to Allah). Are the people really talking in this way?’ I kept on weeping that night until dawn. I could neither stop nor sleep then in the morning again I kept on weeping when the Divine Inspiration was delayed.

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) called Ali Aibn Abi Talib and Usamah Ibn Zaid to ask and consult them about divorcing me. Usamah Ibn Zaid said what he knows of my innocence, and the respect he preserved in himself for me. Usamah said. ‘O Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) She is your wife and we do not know anything except good about her.” Ali Ibn Abi Talib said. ‘O Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) Allah dose not put you in difficulty and there are plenty of women other than she, yet ask the maid servant who will tell you the truth. ‘On that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) called Barira and said, “O Barira! Did you ever see anything which aroused your suspicion?’ Barira said to him, ‘By Him Who has sent you with the Truth. I have never seen anything in her (Aishah) which I would conceal, except that she is a young girl who sleeps leaving the dough of her family exposed so that the domestic goats come and eat it’

So, on that day, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) got up on the pulpit and complained about Abdullah Ibn Ubai before his Companions, Saying,

“O you Muslims! Who will relieve me from that man who has hurt me with his evil statement about my family? By Allah, I know nothing except good about my family and they have beamed a man about whom I know nothing except good and he used never to enter my home except with me.”

Sa’d Ibn Mu’ad, the brother of Banu Abd Al-Ashhal, got up and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him)! I will relieve you from him; if he is from the tribe of Al- Aws, then I will chop his head off, and if he is from our btothers, (Al-Khazraj) then order us, and we will fulfill your order.’ On that, a man form Al-Khazraj got up. Umm Hassan, his cousin, was from his branch tribe, and he was Sa’d Ibn Ubadah, chief of Al-Khazaj. Before this incident, he was a pious man, but his love for his tribe led him into saying to Sa’d, ‘By Allah, you have told a lie; you shall not and cannot kill him. If he belonged to your people, you would not wish him to be killed.’ On that Usaid Ibn Hudair who was the cousin of Sa’d got up and said to Sa’d Ibn Ubahah, ‘By Allah! You are lair! We will surely kill him, and you are a hypocrite arguing on the behalf of hypocrites.’ On this, the two tribes of Al-Aws and Al-Khazaj got so much excited that they were about to fight while Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) was standing on the pulpit. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) kept on calming them until they become silent and so did he. All that day I kept on weeping with my tears never ceasing and I could never sleep.

In the morning, my parents were with me and I wept for two nights and a day with my tears never ceasing and I could never sleep until I thought that my liver would burst from weeping. So, while my parents were sitting with me and I was weeping, an Ansari woman asked me to grant her admittance. I allowed her to come in, and when she came in, she sat down and started weeping with me. While we were in this state, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) come, greeted us and sat down. He had never sat with me since that day of the slander. A month had elapsed and no Divine Inspiration came to him regarding my case. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then recited Tashah-ud and then said,

“O Aishah! I have been informed so-and-so about you; if you are innocent, then soon Allah will reveal your innocence, and if you have committed a sin, then repent to Allah and ask Him for forgiveness for when a slave confessed his sins and asks Allah for forgiveness, Allah accepts his repentance.”

When Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) finished his speech, my tears ceased flowing completely that I no longer felt a single drop of tear flowing. I said to my father, ‘Reply to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on my behalf concerning what he has said,’ My father said, ‘By Allah, I do not know what to say to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).’ Then I said to my mother, ‘Reply to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on my behalf concerning what he has said.’ She said, ‘By Allah, I do not know to say to Allah’ Messenger.’

In spit of the fact that I was a young girl and had a little knowlege of Qur’an, I said, ‘By Allah, no doubt I know that you heard this (slanderous) speech so that it has been planted in your hearts and you have taken it as a truth. Now if I tell you that I am innocent, you will not believe me, and if confess to you about it, and Allah knows that I am innocent, you will surely believe me. By Allah, I find no similitude for me and you except that of Joseph’s father when he said, ‘(For me) patience in the most fitting against that which you assert; it is Allah (Alone) Whose Help can be sought.’ Then I turned to the other side and lay on my bed; and Allah knew than that I was innocence and hoped that Allah would reveal my innocence. But, by Allah, I never thought that Allah would be recited (forever) as I considered myself too unworthy to be talked of by Allah with something of my concern, but I hoped that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) might have a dream in which Allah would prove my innocence. But, by Allah, before Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) left his seat and before any of the household left, the Divine Inspiration came to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

So, there overtook him the dame hard condition, which used to overtook him, (when he used to be inspired Divinely). The sweat was dropping from his body like pearls though it was a wintry day and that was because of the weighty statement, which was being revealed to him. When that state of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was over, he got p smiling, and first word he said was, “O Aishah! Allah has declared your innocence! “Then my Mother said to me, ‘Get up and go to him (Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)). I replied, By Allah, I will not go to him, and I praise none but Allah. So Allah revealed the Verses:

“Those who brought forward the lie are body among yourselves……… (An-Nur: 11-20)”

Allah revealed those Quranic verses to declare my innocence. Abu Bakr As-siddiq who used to disburse money for Mistah Ibn Uthahta because of his relationship to him and his poverty, said, By Allah, I will never give to Mistah Ibn Uthatha anything after what he has said about Aishah.’ Then Allah revealed,

“And let not those among you who are endued with grace and amplitude do means resolve against helping their kinsmen, those in want, and those who have left their homes in Allah’s cause, let them forgive and overlook, do you not love that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (An-Nur: 22)”

Abu Bakr said, ‘Yes, by Allah, I would like that Allah forgive me,’ and went on giving Mistah the money he used to give him before. He also added, ‘By Allah, I will never deprive him of it at all.’ Aishah further said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also asked Zainab bint Jahsh (his wife) about my case. He said to Zainab, “What do you know and what did you see?” She replied, “O Allah’s Messenger! I refrain from claiming falsely that I have heard or seen anything. By Allah, I know nothing except good (about Aishah).’ Form amongst the wives of the Prophet Zainab was my peer (in beauty and in the love she received from the Prophet) but Allah saved her form that evil because of her piety. Her sister Hammah started struggling on her behalf and she was destroyed along with those who were destroyed. The man who was blamed said, ‘Subhan-Allah! By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, I have never uncovered the cover (veil) of any female.’ Later on the man was martyred in Allah’ Cause.”

 

In the Glorious Qur’an, Allah, Most High, says,

“And Allah turned back the unbelievers for (all) their fury: no advantage did they gain; and enough is Allah for the believers in their fight. And Allah is Full of Strenght, Exalted in Might. And those of the people of the Book who aided them – Allah did take them down from their strongholds and cast terror into their hearts, (so that) some ye slew, and some ye made captives. And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods, and of a land which ye had not frequented (before). And Allah has power over all things. (Al-Ahzab: 25-27)”

In Sahih Al-Bukhari, we read the following narrations regarding the battle of Quraizha:

Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) returned from Al-Khandaq and laid down his arms and took a bath, Gabriel come and said (to the Prophet) You have laid down you arms? By Allah, we angels have not laid the down yet. So set out for them.” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, Where to go?Gabriel said, Towards this side.pointing towards Banu Quraizah. So the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went out to towards them.”

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “As if I am just now Looking at the dust rising the the street of Banu Ghanm (in Medina) because of the marching of Gbriel’s regiment when Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out Banu Quraizah (to Attack) 

Likewise, Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that on the day of Al-Ahzab the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

None of you (Muslims) should offer the Asr Prayer but at Banu Quraizah’s place.

The Asr Prayer became due for some of them in the way. Some of those said, “We will not offer it until we reach it place of Banu Quraizah.” while some others said, “No, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not mean that for us.” Later on, it was mentioned to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and he did not berate any of the two groups. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) besieged them for twenty-five nights until they were sore pressed and Allah cast terror into their hearts. Consequently, they submitted to the Messenger’s Judgment. The tribe of Al-Aws leapt up and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, they are our allies, not allies of Al-Khazrj, and you know how you recently treated the allies of our brethren (his pardon about Banu Qanuqa). Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, 

O will you be satisfied, O Aws, if one of your own tribe pronounces judgment on them?

When they agreed he said that Sa’d Ibn Mu’adh was that man.

Al-Bukhari narrated the authority of Abu Sa’id Al-Khudari (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the people of Quraizha agreed to accept the verdict of Sa’ad Ibn Mu’ad. So the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent for Sa’d and the latter come (riding) a donkey and when he approached the Mosque, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to the Ansar,

Get up for your chief of for the best among you.Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to Sa’d, These (Banu Quraizah) have agreed to accept your verdict.” Sa’d said, “Kill their (men) warriors and take their offspring as captives!” On that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, you have judged according to Allah’s judgment.or said, according to the King’s judgment.

Moreover, Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said that, “sa’d was wounded on the day of Khandaq when a man from Quraish, called Hibban Ibn Al-Araqah hit him (with an arrow). The man was Hibban Ibn Qais from (the tribe of) Bani Mais Ibn Amir Ibn Lu’ai who shot an arrow as Sa’d’s medile arm vein) or main artery of the arm). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pitched a tent (for Sa’d) in the Mosque so that he might be bear to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to visit. When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) returned from the battle of Al-Khandaq and laid down his arms and took a bath Gabriel come to him while was shaking the dust off his head, and said, You have laid down the arms?” By Allah, I have not laid them down. Go out to them.The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,Where?Gabriel pointed towards Banu Quraizha. So Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went to them. They then surrendered to the Prophet’s judgment but he directed them to sa’d to give his verdict concerning them. Sa’d said, ‘I give my judgment that their warriors should be killed, their women and children should be taken a captives, and their properties distributed.’

Hisham said, “My father informed me that Aishah said, Sa’d said, ‘O Allah! You know that there is nothing more beloved to me than to fight in Your Cause against those who disbelieved Your Messenger and turned him out of (Mecca). O Allah! I think you have put to an and the fight between us and them (Quraish infidels). And if there still remains any fight with the Quraish, then keep me alive until I fight against them for Your Sake. But if you have brought the war to an end, then let this wound burst and cause my death thereby.’ So blood gushed from the wound. There was a tent in the Mosque belonging to Banu Ghifar who were surprised by the blood flowing towards them. They said, ‘O people of the tent! What is this thing which is coming to us from your side? Behold was flowing profusely out of Sa’d wound. Sa’d then died because of that.’ “

 


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