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The conquest of Mecca, according to the scholars of Siyrah, took place in Ramadan in the 8th year of Hijra. In the Glorious Qur’an, Allah, Most High, says,

“Not equal among you are these who spent (freely) and fought, before the victory (with those who did later). Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all Allah promised a goodly (reward). And Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do. (Al-Hadid: 10)”

When comes the Help of Allah, and victory, and thou dost see the people enter Allah’s Religion in crowds, celebrate the Praises of thy Lord, and pray for His forgiveness: for His is Oft-Returning (in forgiveness). (AN-Nasr: 1-3)”

THE OCCASION OF THE CONQUEST OF MECCA

Despite the improved relations between Mecca and Medina after the signing of the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah, the ten-year peace was to be broken by Quraish who, with their allies, the tribe of Bakr, attacked the tribe of Khuza’ah where allies of the Muslims and when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) heard of the attack he immediately ordered his men to prepare fro was Later, the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) informed the men that he was going to Mecca and ordered them to make careful preparations. He said, “O Allah, take the eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise in their land.” Consequently, the men got themselves ready.

THE AFFAIR OF HATIB IBN ABI BATA’AH

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ubaid Allah Ibn Rafi that the later said, ‘I heard Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) say, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent me, Abu Marthad and Az-Zubair, and all of us were riding horses, and said, “Go until you reach Raudat-Khakh where there is a pagan women carrying a Mecca.” So we found her riding her camel at the place which Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had mentioned. We said (to Her), ‘(Give us) the letter.’ She said, ‘I have no letter.’ Then we made her camel kneel down and we searched her, but we found no letter. Then we said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had not told us a lie, certainly. Take out the letter, otherwise we will strip you naked.’ When she saw that we were determined, she put her hand below her waist belt, for she had tied her cloak round her waist, and she took out the letter, and we brought her to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Then Umar said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! (This Hatib) had betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers! Let me cut off his neck!’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked Hatib, “What made you do this?” Hatib Said, ‘By Allah, I did not intend to give up my belief in Allah and His Messenger but I wanted to have some influence among the Mecca people so that through it, Allah might protect my family and property. There is none of your Companions but has some of his relatives there through whom Allah protects his family and property.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “He has spoken the truth; do no say to him but good.” Umar said, ‘He as betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the faithful believers. Let me cut off his neck!’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Is he not one of the Badr warriors? May be Allah looked at the Badr warriors and said, ‘Do whatever you like, as I have granted Paradise to you, or said, as I have forgiven you. “On this, tears come out of Umar’s eyes, and he said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ ”

Therefore, Allah, Most High, had revealed the Surah that begins with.

“O Ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors), offering them (your) love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have (no the contrary) driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because ye believe in Allah, you Lord! If you have came out to strive in My way and to seek My good pleasure, Showing friendship into them in secret: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all that ye reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the straight path. (Al-Mumtahinah: 1)”

MUSLIMS GOES TO MECCA

On the 10th of Ramadan, 8 AH, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went on his journey and put over Medina Abu Ruham Kulrhim Ibn Hussayn. In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the latter said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) traveled in the month of Ramadan and he fasted until he reached (a place called) Usfan, then he asked for a tumbler of water and drank it by the daytime so that the people might see him. He broke his fast until he reached Mecca.’ Ibn Abbas used to say, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fasted and sometime did not fast while traveling, so one may fast or may not (on journeys).’ However, it should be note that the Muslims number was 100.00 men. 

ABU SUFIYAN EMBRACES ISLAM

Hisham’s father., according to Al-Bukhari, narrated that when Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out (towards Mecca) during the year of the Conquest of Mecca and this news reached the infidels of Quraish, Abu Sufyan, Hakim Ibn Hizam and Budail Ibn Warqa come out to gather information about Allah Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). They proceeded on their way until they reached a place called Marr-az-Zahran (which is near Meccah). Behold! There they saw many fires as if they were the fires of Arafat. Abu Sufyan said, ‘What is this?’ It looked like the fires of Arafat.’ Budail Ibn Warqa said, ‘Banu Amr are less in number than that.’

Some of the guards of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saw them and took them over, caught them and brought them to Allah’s Messenger. Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) proceeded he said to Al-Abbas, “Keep Abu Sufyan standing at the top of the mountain so that he would look at the Muslims.” SO Al-Abbas kept him standing (At that place) and the tribes with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started passing in front of Abu Sufyan in military batches. A batch passed and Abu Sufyan said. ‘O Abbas Who are these?’ Abbas said, ‘They are Banu Ghifar.’ Abu Sufyan said, ‘I have got nothing to do with Ghifar.’ Then a batch of the tribe of Juhaina passed by and he said similarly as above. Then a batch f the tribe Sa’d Ibn Huzaim passed by and he said similarly as above. Then Banu Sulaim passed by and he said similarly as above, Then came a batch, the like of which Abu Sufyan had not seen. He said, ‘Who are these?’ Abbas said, ‘They are the Ansar headed by Sa’d Ibn Ubadah, the one holding the flag.’

Sa’d Ibn Ubadah said, ‘O Abu Sufyan! Today is they day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in) the Ka’bah will be permissible.’ Abu Sufyan said, ‘O Abbas! How excellent the day of destruction is!’ Then came another batch of warriors which was the smallest of all the batches, and in it there was Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and his Companions and the flag of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was carried by Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam.

When Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed by Abu Sufyan, the latter said, (to the Prophet), ‘Do you know shat Sa’d Ibn Ubadah said?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “What did he say?” Abu Sufyan said, He said, ‘Today is they day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in) the Ka’bah will be permissible.’ On that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

“Sa’d told a lie, but today Allah will give superiority to the Ka’bah and today the Ka’bah will be covered with a (cloth) covering.” Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered that his flag be fixed at Al-Hajun.

Al-Bukhari also narrated that Urwah said that Nafi Ibn Jubair Ibn Mut’im said, ‘I heard AL-Abbas saying to Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam, ‘O Abu Abdullah! Did Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) order you to fix the flag here?’

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to enter Mecca from its upper from Ka’bah while the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) himself entered from Kuda. Two men from the cavalry of Khalid Ibn Al-Walid named Hubaush Ibn Al -Ash’ar and Kurz Ibn Jabir Al-Fihri were martyred on the day.

 

THE DESCRIPTION OF PROPHET’S ENTRY INTO MECCA

Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, ‘During the year of the Conquest Mecca, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca through Kada which was at the upper part of Mecca. Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) that the latter said that on the day of the Conquest, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca, wearing a helmet on his head. When he took it off, a man came and said, ‘Ibn Khatal is clinging to the curtain of the the Ka’bak.’ Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said “Kill him” Al-Bukhari moreover, narrated on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal that the latter said that I saw Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on the day of Conquest of Mecca over his she-camel, reciting Surat-al-Fath in a vibrant quivering tone. Mu’awiyah commented on this, saying, ‘Were I not afraid that the people may gather aroung me, I would recite in vibrant quivering tone as he (Abdullah Ibn Mughafal) did, imitating Allah’s Messenger.’

Muslims had been ordered by Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) not to cause any harm unless anyone tried to stop them entering. However, According to Ibn Ishaq Safwan Ibn Umayyah, Ikrimah Ibn Abi Jahl and Suhail Ibn Amr had called some men in Al-Khandama to fight. Himas Ibn Qays Ibn Khalid, brother of Ibn Bakr was sharpening his sword before the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca, and his wife asked him why he was doing so. When he told her it was for Muhammad and his companions she said that she did not think that it would do them any haram. He answered that he hoped to give hr one of them as a salve. Then he went to Al-Khandama with Safwan, Suhayl, and Ikrimah and when the Muslims under Khaild arrived a skirmish followed in which Kurz Ibn Jabir, one of the tribe of Muharib Ibn Fihr, and Hubais Ibn Khalid Ibn Rabi’ah Ibn Asram, and ally of the tribe of Munqidh, who were in Khalid’s cavalry, were killed. The had taken a road of their own apart from Khalid adn were killed together. Salamah Ibn Al-Mayla, one of Khalid’s horsemen, was killed, and the polytheists lost about 12 or 13 men; then they took to fight. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had instructed his Commanders when they entered Mecca only to fight those who resisted them, except a small number who were to be killed even if they found beneath the curtains of Ka’bah. Among them were Abdullah Ibn Sa’d Ibn Abi Sarh, Abdullah Ibn Khadl and Al-Huwairth Ibn Naqid Ibn Wahb Ibn Abd Qasa.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Abdullah that, ‘When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca on the Day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka’bah. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, “A Truth has come and falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear. ” Moreover, Al-Bukhari on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived at Mecca in the year of the Conquest while Usamah was riding behind him on (his she-camel). Al-Qaswa, Bilal and Uthman Ibn Talha were accompanying him. When he made his she-camel kneel down near the Ka’bah, he said to Uthman. “Get us the key (of the Ka’bah).” He brought the key to him and opened the gate of the Ka’bah, fro him. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), Usamah, Bilal and Uthman entered the Ka’bah and then closed the gate behind them from inside, The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed there for a long period and then came out. The People rushed to get in, but I went in before them and found Bilal standing behind the gate, and I said to him, ‘Where did the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pray?’ He said, ‘He prayed between those two front pillars.’ The Ka’bah was built on six pillars, arranged in two rows, and he prayed between the two pillars of the front row leaving the gate of the Ka’bah at his back and facing (in Prayer) the wall which faces one when one enters the Ka’bah. Between him and that wall (was the distance of about three cubits). But I forgot to ask Bilal about the number of Rakat (units in Prayer) the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had Prayed. There was a red piece of marble at the place where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had offered the Prayer.

Mujahid, according to Al-Bukhari, also reported that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up on the day the Conquest of Mecca and said,

“Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth, and it will remain a sanctuary by virtue of the sanctity Allah has bestowed on it until the Day of Resurrection. It (fighting in it) was not made lawful to anyone before me nor will it be made lawful to anyone after me, and it was not made lawful for me except for a short period of time. Its animals (that can be hunted) should no be chased, nor should its trees be cut, nor its vegetation or grass uprooted, not its Luqata (most things) picked up except by one who makes a public announcement about it.”

Al-Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib said, ‘Except the Idhkhir, O Allah’s Messenger, as it is indispensable for blacksmiths and houses.’ On that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) kept quiet and then said, “Except the Idhkhir as it is lawful to cut.” Abu Shuriah narrated that he said to Amr Ibn Sa’id while the latter was sending troops in batches to Mecca, ‘O chief! Allow me to tell you a statement which Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said on the second day of the Conquest of Mecca. My two ears heard it and my heart remembered it and may two eyes saw him when he said it. He (the prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) praised Allah and then said,

“Mecca has been made a sanctuary by Allah and not by the people, so it is not lawful for a person, who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood in it, or to cut its trees and if someone asks the permission to fight in Mecca because Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was allowed to fight in it, say to him, ‘Allah permitted His Messenger and did not allow you, and even he (the Messenger) was allowed for a short period of the day, and today its (Mecca’s) sanctity has become the same as it was before (of old) so those who are present should inform those who are absent (this Hadith).”

According to Al-Bukhari, Salim’s father narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent Khaild invited them to the tribe of Jadhimah and Khalid invited them to Islam but they could not express themselves by saying, “Aslamna (we have embraced Islam),” but they started saying “Saba’na! Saba’na (we have come out of one religion to another).” Khalid kept on killing (some of) them and taking (some of) them as captives and gave every one of us his Captive. When there came the day then Khalid orederd that each man should kill his captive, I said, ‘By Allah, I will not kill my captive, and none of my companions will kill his captive.’ When we reached the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), we mentioned to him the whole story. On that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) raised both his hands and said twice, “O Allah! I am free from what Khaild has done.” 

THE PROPHET’S STAY IN MECCA

The Scholars of Siyrah are unanimously agreed that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed the remaining days of Ramadan in Mecca shortening the Prayers and not fasting. in this context, Al-Bukhari narrated that Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said. ‘We stayed in Mecca for ten days along with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and used to offer shortened Prayed (journey prayers).’ Also Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed in Mecca for 19 days during which he prayed 2 Rak’at in each Prayer (that consists of 4 Rak’at, namely Zuhar, Asr and Maghrib Prayers).

THE PROPHET’S JUDGMENT DURING HIS STAY IN MECCA

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari reported some of the Prophet’s Judgement during his stay in Mecca, Following are some of his narrations:

Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said that Utbah Abi Waqqas authorized his brother Sa’d to take the sone of the slave-girl of Zam’ah into his custody, Utbah said ‘He is my son.’ When Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived in Mecca during the Conquest Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas took him to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Abd Ibn Zam’ah too came along with him. Sa’d daid, ‘This is the son of my brother and the latter has informed me that he is his son.’ Abd Ibn Zam’ah said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! This is my brother who is the son of the slave-girl of Zam’ah and was born on his Zama’ah bed.’

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) looked at the son of the slave-girl of Zam’ah and noticed that he, of all the people had the greatest resemblance to Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then said, to abd, “He is yours: he is your brother, O Abd Ibn Zam’ah, he was born on the bed of your father.” At the same time Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to his wife Sawadh, “Veil yourself before him (the son of the slave-girl) O Sauda,” because of the resemblance he noticed between him and Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) added, ” The boy is for the bed (for the owner of the bed where he was born), and stone is for the adulterer.” Urwah Ibn Az-Zubair reported that a lady committed theft during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in the Ghazwah of Al-Fath (Conquest of Mecca). Her folk went to Usamah Ibn Zaid to intercede for her (with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). When Usamah interceded for her with Allah’s Messenger, the color of the face of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) changed and he said, “Do you intercede with me in a matter involving one of the legal punishments prescribed by Allah?” Usamah said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Ask Allah’s Forgiveness for me.’ So in the afternoon, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up and addressed the people. He praised Allah as He deserved and then said,

“……… The nations prior to you were destroyed because if a noble amongst them stole, they used to excuse him, and if a poor person amongst them stole, they would apply (Allah’s) Legal punishment to him. By Him in Whose Hand Muhammad’s soul is, if Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad stole I would cut her hand.”

Then Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave his order in the case of that woman and her hand was cut off. Afterwards her repentance proved sincere and she got married. Aishah said, “That lady used to visit me and I used to convey her demands to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).”

On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of both men and women to testify that there is no god but Allah Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and to embrace Islam. According to Ahmad, the Messenger of (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of people to believe in Allah and to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

In the Glorious Qur’an, We read,

“Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee, that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery (or fornication)., that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood, and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter, then do thou receive their fealty, and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins): for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Al-Mumtahinah: 12) “

Majashi, according to Al-Bukhari, said, ‘I took my brother to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after the Conquest of the Mecca and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! I have come to you with my brother so that you may take a pledge of allegiance from him for migration.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “The people of migration (those who migrated to Medina before the Conquest) enjoyed the privileges of migration (there is no need fro migration anymore).” I said, to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ‘For what will you take his pledge of allegiance?’ Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “I will take his pledge of allegiance for Islam, Belief, and for Jihad (fighting in Allah’s Cause).”

Mujhid, likewise, said, ‘I said to Ibn Umar ‘I want to migrate to Syria.’ He said, ‘There is no migration, but Jihad for Allah’s Cause. Go and offer yourself for Jihad, and if you find an opportunity for Jihad (stay there) otherwise, come back,’ In an other narration, Ibn Umar said, ‘There is no migration today or after Allah’s Messenger.’ Then he completed his statement as above.

Ibn Abbas said, ‘Umar used to admit me along with the old men who had fought in the Badr battle. Some of them said, ‘Why do you allow this young man to enter with us, while we have sons of his own age?’ Umar said, ‘You know what person he is.’ One day Umar called tem and called me along with them, I had thought he called me on that day to show them something about me (my knowledge). Umar asked them, ‘What do you say about (the Surah) that reads,

“When comes the Help of Allah and the Victory, and thou dost see people enter Allah’s Religion in crowds. Celebrate the Praises of they Lord and pray for His forgiveness: for He is Oft-Returning (in forgiveness). (An-Nasr: 1-3) “

Some of them replied. ‘We are ordered to praise Allah and repent to Him if we are helped and granted victory.’ Some said, ‘We do not know.’ Other kept quiet. Umar then said ‘What do you say then? ‘I said, ‘This Qur’anic verse indicates the approaching of the death of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) of which Allah informed him. When comes the help of Allah and the Conquest, the Conquest of Mecca, that will be the sign of your Prophet’s approaching death, so testify the uniqueness of your Lord (Allah) and praise Him and repent to Him as He is ready to forgive.’ On that Umar said, ‘I do not know about it anything other than what you know.’

Amr Ibn Salamah said, ‘We were at a place which was a thoroughfare for the people, and the caravans used to pass by us and we would ask them, ‘What is wrong with the people> What is wrong with the People? Who is the man?’ They would say, ‘That man claims that Allah has sent him (as a Messenger), that he has been divinely inspired, and that Allah has revealed to him such-and-such.’ I used to memorize that (Divine) Talk, and feel as if it was inculcated in my chest (mind) and the Arabs (other than Quraish) delayed their conversion to Islam until the Conquest of Mecca. They used to say, ‘Leave him (Muhammad) and his people Quraish: if he overpowers them then he is a true Prophet. So, when Mecca was conquest, then every tribe rushed t embrace Islam, and my father hurried to embrace Islam before (the other member of) my tribe. When my father returned (from the Prophet) to his tribe, he said, ‘By Allah, I have come to you from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for sue!’ Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) afterwards said to them,

 “Offer such-and-such Prayer at such-and-such time, and when the time for the prayer becomes due, then one of you should pronounce the Azan (the call to prayer), and let the one amongst you who knows Qur’an most should, lead the Prayer.”

So the looked for such a person and found none who knew more Qur’an than I because of the Qurainc material which I used to learn form the caravans. They therefore made me their Imam (to lead the prayer) and at that time I was a boy of six or seven years, wearing a Burda (a black square garment) proved to be very short for me (and my body become partly naked). A lady from the tribe said, ‘Won’t you cover the anus of your reciter for us?’ So they bought (a piece of cloth) and made a shirt for me. I had never been as happy with anything before as I was with that shirt.’

 

According to Al-Bukhari, this battle is also called the battle of Al-Muraisi. It took place, according to Ibn Ishaq, in the 6th year of Hijra. Musa Ibn Uqbah, however, said, “It was in the 4th year of Hijra.” Az’Zuhari said, “The story of the forged statment against Ashah (may Allah be pleased with her) was during the battle of Al-Muraisi”

According to Ibn Ishaq, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) received news that Banu Al-Mustaliq were gathering together against him. Their leader was Al-Harith Ibn Abu Dirar, the father Juwairiyah, whom the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) married afterwards. On hearing about them, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went out and met them at a watering place of theirs called Al-Muraisi in the direction of Qudayd towards the shore. There was a fight and Allah put Banu Al-Mustahiq to flight and killed some of them and gave the Messenger their wives, children, and property as booty,

Al-Bukhari narrated that Abdullah Ibn Awn said, “I wrote a letter to Nafi wrote in reply to my letter that had suddenly attacked Banu Al-Mustaliq without warning while they were heedless and their cattle were being watered at the places of water. Their fighting men were killed and their women and children were taken as captives; the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got Juwairiyah on that day. Nafi said that Ibn Umar had told him the above narration and that Ibn Umar was in the army.”

Al-Bukhari also narrated that Ibn Muhairiaz said “I entered the Mosque and saw Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri and sat beside him and asked him about Al-Azl (coitus interruption). Abu Sa’id said, “We went out with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for the Ghazwah of Abnu Al-Mustaliq and we received captives from among the Arab captives and we desired women and celibacy become hard on us and we loved to do coitus interruption. So when we intended to do coitus interruption us, we said, “‘How can we do coitus interruption before asking Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who is present among us?’ We asked about it and he siad,

‘It is better for you not to do so, for if any soul (until the Day of resurrection) is predestined to exist.’ “

On they day of Banu AL-Mustaliq, a Muslim of Banu Kalb Ibn Awf Ibn Amir Aibn Layth Ibn Bakr was killed by a man of the Ansar of the family of Ubadah Ibn As-Samit who thought he was an enemy and killed him in error. Due to their hostility to Islam and Muhammad the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), the hypocrites tried to divide the Muslims and ruin their unity. However, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was keen enough to deal with their devices wisely.

THE STORY OF ‘IFK’

‘Ifk’ is an Arabic word that means ‘Iying’. Hear, it refers the forged statement against ‘Aishah, (may Allah be pleased with hem) which the hypocrite said. In the Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated the whole story of Ifk on the authority of Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said, “Whenever Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) intended to go on a journey, he used to draw lots amongst his wives, and Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to take with him the one on whom lot fell. He drew lots amongst us during one of the Ghazeat, which he fought. The lot fell on me and so I proceeded with Allah’s Messenger after Allah’s order of Hijab (veiling the women) had been revealed. I was carried (on the back of a camel) in my howdah and carried down while still in the (when we come to a halt). So we went on until Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had finished from that Ghazwah of his and returned.

When we approached the city of Medina, He announced at night that it was time for departure. So when they announced the news of departure, I got up and went away from the army camps, and after finishing from the call of nature, I come back to my riding animal. I touched my chest to find that my necklace, which was made of Zifar beads (Yemenite beads partly black and partly white), was missing. So I returned to look for my necklace and my search for it detained me. The people who used to carry me on camel came and took my howdah and put it on the back of my camel on which I used to ride, as they considered that I was in it. In those days women were light in weight for they did not get fat, and flesh did not cover their bodies in abundance as they used to eat only a little food. Those people therefore, disregarded the lightness of the howdah while lifting and carrying it; and at the time I was still a young girl. They made the camel rise and all of them left (along with it). I found my necklace after the army had gone.

Then I came to their camping place to find no call maker of them, nor one who would respond to the call. So I intended to go to the place where I used to stay, thinking that they would miss me and come back to me (in my search). While I was sitting in my resting-place, I was overwhelmed by sleep and slept. Safwan Ibn Al-Mu’attal As Sulami Adh-Dhakwani was behind the army. When he reached my place in the morning, he saw the figure of a sleeping person and he recognized me on seeing me as he had seen me before the order of compulsory veiling (was prescribed). So I woke up when the recited Istirja (Inna Lillahi wa inna llaihi raji’un”) as soon as he recognized me. I veiled my face with my head cover at once, and by Allah, we did not speak a single word, and I did not hear him saying any word besides his Istirha’. He dismounted form his camel and made it kneel down, putting his leg on its front legs and then I got up and rode on it. Then he set out leading the camel that was carrying me until we overtook the army in the extreme feat of midday while they were at a halt (taking a rest). (Because of the event) some people brought destruction upon themselves and the one who spread the Ifk (slander0 more, was Abdullah Ibn Ubai Ibn Salul.”

Oureah said, “The people propagateed teh slander and talked about it in his (Abdullah’s) presence and he confirmed it and listened to it and asked about it to let it prevail.” Urwah also added, “None was mentioned as members of the slanderous group besides (Abdullah) except Hassan Ibn Thabit and Mistah Ibn Uthatha nad Hamnah bint Jahsh along with others about whom I have no knowledge, but they were a group as Allah said. It is said that the one who carried most of the slander was Abdullah Ibn Ubai Ibn Salul.” Urwah added, ” Aishah disliked having Hassan abused in her presence and she used to say, ‘It was he who said: Myfather and his father and my honor are all for the protection of Muhammad’s honor form you.”)

Aishah continued, saying, “After we returned to Medina, I become ill for a month. The people were propagating the forged statements of the slanderers while I was unaware of anything of all that, but I felt that in my present aliment, I was not receiving the same kindness from Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) as I used to receive when I got sick. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) would only come, greet me and say, ‘How is that (lady)?’ and leave. That roused my doubts but I did not discover the evil until I went out after my convalescence, I went out with Umm Mistah to Al-Manasi where we used to answer the call of nature and we used not to go out (to answer the call of nature) except at night, and that was before we had latrines near our houses. And this habit of our concerning evacuating the bowels, was similar to the habits of the old Arabs living in the deserts, for it would be troublesome for us to take latrines near our houses. So I and Umm Mistah who was the daughter of Abu Ruhm Ibn Al-Muttalib Ibn Abd Manaf, whose mother was the daughter of Sakhr Ibn Amr and the aunt of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq adn whose son was Mistah Ibn Uthatha Ibn Abbas Ibn Al-Muttalib, went out. I and Umm Mistah returned to my house after we finished answering the call of nature. Umm Mistah stumbled by getting her foot entangled in her covering sheet and on that she said, ‘Let Mistah be ruined.’ I said, ‘What a hard word you have said. Do you abuse a man who took part in the battle of Badr?’ On that she said, ‘O you Hantah! Didn’t you hear what he said, ‘I said, “What did he say?’

They she told me the slander of the People of Ifk. So my ailment was aggravated, and when I reached my home, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) came to me, and after greeting me, said, ‘How is that (Lady)?’ I said, “Will you allow me to go to may parents?’ as I wanted to be sure about the news through them. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) allowed me (I went to my parents) and asked my mother, ‘O Mother! What are the people talking about?’ she said, “O my daughter! Don’t worry, for scarcely is there a charming women who is loved by her husband and whose husband has other wives besides herself that they would find faults with her. I said, ‘Subhan-Allah (Glory be to Allah). Are the people really talking in this way?’ I kept on weeping that night until dawn. I could neither stop nor sleep then in the morning again I kept on weeping when the Divine Inspiration was delayed.

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) called Ali Aibn Abi Talib and Usamah Ibn Zaid to ask and consult them about divorcing me. Usamah Ibn Zaid said what he knows of my innocence, and the respect he preserved in himself for me. Usamah said. ‘O Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) She is your wife and we do not know anything except good about her.” Ali Ibn Abi Talib said. ‘O Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) Allah dose not put you in difficulty and there are plenty of women other than she, yet ask the maid servant who will tell you the truth. ‘On that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) called Barira and said, “O Barira! Did you ever see anything which aroused your suspicion?’ Barira said to him, ‘By Him Who has sent you with the Truth. I have never seen anything in her (Aishah) which I would conceal, except that she is a young girl who sleeps leaving the dough of her family exposed so that the domestic goats come and eat it’

So, on that day, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) got up on the pulpit and complained about Abdullah Ibn Ubai before his Companions, Saying,

“O you Muslims! Who will relieve me from that man who has hurt me with his evil statement about my family? By Allah, I know nothing except good about my family and they have beamed a man about whom I know nothing except good and he used never to enter my home except with me.”

Sa’d Ibn Mu’ad, the brother of Banu Abd Al-Ashhal, got up and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him)! I will relieve you from him; if he is from the tribe of Al- Aws, then I will chop his head off, and if he is from our btothers, (Al-Khazraj) then order us, and we will fulfill your order.’ On that, a man form Al-Khazraj got up. Umm Hassan, his cousin, was from his branch tribe, and he was Sa’d Ibn Ubadah, chief of Al-Khazaj. Before this incident, he was a pious man, but his love for his tribe led him into saying to Sa’d, ‘By Allah, you have told a lie; you shall not and cannot kill him. If he belonged to your people, you would not wish him to be killed.’ On that Usaid Ibn Hudair who was the cousin of Sa’d got up and said to Sa’d Ibn Ubahah, ‘By Allah! You are lair! We will surely kill him, and you are a hypocrite arguing on the behalf of hypocrites.’ On this, the two tribes of Al-Aws and Al-Khazaj got so much excited that they were about to fight while Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) was standing on the pulpit. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) kept on calming them until they become silent and so did he. All that day I kept on weeping with my tears never ceasing and I could never sleep.

In the morning, my parents were with me and I wept for two nights and a day with my tears never ceasing and I could never sleep until I thought that my liver would burst from weeping. So, while my parents were sitting with me and I was weeping, an Ansari woman asked me to grant her admittance. I allowed her to come in, and when she came in, she sat down and started weeping with me. While we were in this state, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) come, greeted us and sat down. He had never sat with me since that day of the slander. A month had elapsed and no Divine Inspiration came to him regarding my case. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then recited Tashah-ud and then said,

“O Aishah! I have been informed so-and-so about you; if you are innocent, then soon Allah will reveal your innocence, and if you have committed a sin, then repent to Allah and ask Him for forgiveness for when a slave confessed his sins and asks Allah for forgiveness, Allah accepts his repentance.”

When Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) finished his speech, my tears ceased flowing completely that I no longer felt a single drop of tear flowing. I said to my father, ‘Reply to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on my behalf concerning what he has said,’ My father said, ‘By Allah, I do not know what to say to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).’ Then I said to my mother, ‘Reply to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on my behalf concerning what he has said.’ She said, ‘By Allah, I do not know to say to Allah’ Messenger.’

In spit of the fact that I was a young girl and had a little knowlege of Qur’an, I said, ‘By Allah, no doubt I know that you heard this (slanderous) speech so that it has been planted in your hearts and you have taken it as a truth. Now if I tell you that I am innocent, you will not believe me, and if confess to you about it, and Allah knows that I am innocent, you will surely believe me. By Allah, I find no similitude for me and you except that of Joseph’s father when he said, ‘(For me) patience in the most fitting against that which you assert; it is Allah (Alone) Whose Help can be sought.’ Then I turned to the other side and lay on my bed; and Allah knew than that I was innocence and hoped that Allah would reveal my innocence. But, by Allah, I never thought that Allah would be recited (forever) as I considered myself too unworthy to be talked of by Allah with something of my concern, but I hoped that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) might have a dream in which Allah would prove my innocence. But, by Allah, before Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) left his seat and before any of the household left, the Divine Inspiration came to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

So, there overtook him the dame hard condition, which used to overtook him, (when he used to be inspired Divinely). The sweat was dropping from his body like pearls though it was a wintry day and that was because of the weighty statement, which was being revealed to him. When that state of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was over, he got p smiling, and first word he said was, “O Aishah! Allah has declared your innocence! “Then my Mother said to me, ‘Get up and go to him (Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)). I replied, By Allah, I will not go to him, and I praise none but Allah. So Allah revealed the Verses:

“Those who brought forward the lie are body among yourselves……… (An-Nur: 11-20)”

Allah revealed those Quranic verses to declare my innocence. Abu Bakr As-siddiq who used to disburse money for Mistah Ibn Uthahta because of his relationship to him and his poverty, said, By Allah, I will never give to Mistah Ibn Uthatha anything after what he has said about Aishah.’ Then Allah revealed,

“And let not those among you who are endued with grace and amplitude do means resolve against helping their kinsmen, those in want, and those who have left their homes in Allah’s cause, let them forgive and overlook, do you not love that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (An-Nur: 22)”

Abu Bakr said, ‘Yes, by Allah, I would like that Allah forgive me,’ and went on giving Mistah the money he used to give him before. He also added, ‘By Allah, I will never deprive him of it at all.’ Aishah further said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also asked Zainab bint Jahsh (his wife) about my case. He said to Zainab, “What do you know and what did you see?” She replied, “O Allah’s Messenger! I refrain from claiming falsely that I have heard or seen anything. By Allah, I know nothing except good (about Aishah).’ Form amongst the wives of the Prophet Zainab was my peer (in beauty and in the love she received from the Prophet) but Allah saved her form that evil because of her piety. Her sister Hammah started struggling on her behalf and she was destroyed along with those who were destroyed. The man who was blamed said, ‘Subhan-Allah! By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, I have never uncovered the cover (veil) of any female.’ Later on the man was martyred in Allah’ Cause.”

 

In the Glorious Qur’an, Allah, Most High, says,

“And Allah turned back the unbelievers for (all) their fury: no advantage did they gain; and enough is Allah for the believers in their fight. And Allah is Full of Strenght, Exalted in Might. And those of the people of the Book who aided them – Allah did take them down from their strongholds and cast terror into their hearts, (so that) some ye slew, and some ye made captives. And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods, and of a land which ye had not frequented (before). And Allah has power over all things. (Al-Ahzab: 25-27)”

In Sahih Al-Bukhari, we read the following narrations regarding the battle of Quraizha:

Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) returned from Al-Khandaq and laid down his arms and took a bath, Gabriel come and said (to the Prophet) You have laid down you arms? By Allah, we angels have not laid the down yet. So set out for them.” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, Where to go?Gabriel said, Towards this side.pointing towards Banu Quraizah. So the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went out to towards them.”

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “As if I am just now Looking at the dust rising the the street of Banu Ghanm (in Medina) because of the marching of Gbriel’s regiment when Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out Banu Quraizah (to Attack) 

Likewise, Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that on the day of Al-Ahzab the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

None of you (Muslims) should offer the Asr Prayer but at Banu Quraizah’s place.

The Asr Prayer became due for some of them in the way. Some of those said, “We will not offer it until we reach it place of Banu Quraizah.” while some others said, “No, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not mean that for us.” Later on, it was mentioned to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and he did not berate any of the two groups. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) besieged them for twenty-five nights until they were sore pressed and Allah cast terror into their hearts. Consequently, they submitted to the Messenger’s Judgment. The tribe of Al-Aws leapt up and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, they are our allies, not allies of Al-Khazrj, and you know how you recently treated the allies of our brethren (his pardon about Banu Qanuqa). Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, 

O will you be satisfied, O Aws, if one of your own tribe pronounces judgment on them?

When they agreed he said that Sa’d Ibn Mu’adh was that man.

Al-Bukhari narrated the authority of Abu Sa’id Al-Khudari (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the people of Quraizha agreed to accept the verdict of Sa’ad Ibn Mu’ad. So the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent for Sa’d and the latter come (riding) a donkey and when he approached the Mosque, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to the Ansar,

Get up for your chief of for the best among you.Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to Sa’d, These (Banu Quraizah) have agreed to accept your verdict.” Sa’d said, “Kill their (men) warriors and take their offspring as captives!” On that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, you have judged according to Allah’s judgment.or said, according to the King’s judgment.

Moreover, Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said that, “sa’d was wounded on the day of Khandaq when a man from Quraish, called Hibban Ibn Al-Araqah hit him (with an arrow). The man was Hibban Ibn Qais from (the tribe of) Bani Mais Ibn Amir Ibn Lu’ai who shot an arrow as Sa’d’s medile arm vein) or main artery of the arm). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pitched a tent (for Sa’d) in the Mosque so that he might be bear to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to visit. When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) returned from the battle of Al-Khandaq and laid down his arms and took a bath Gabriel come to him while was shaking the dust off his head, and said, You have laid down the arms?” By Allah, I have not laid them down. Go out to them.The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,Where?Gabriel pointed towards Banu Quraizha. So Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went to them. They then surrendered to the Prophet’s judgment but he directed them to sa’d to give his verdict concerning them. Sa’d said, ‘I give my judgment that their warriors should be killed, their women and children should be taken a captives, and their properties distributed.’

Hisham said, “My father informed me that Aishah said, Sa’d said, ‘O Allah! You know that there is nothing more beloved to me than to fight in Your Cause against those who disbelieved Your Messenger and turned him out of (Mecca). O Allah! I think you have put to an and the fight between us and them (Quraish infidels). And if there still remains any fight with the Quraish, then keep me alive until I fight against them for Your Sake. But if you have brought the war to an end, then let this wound burst and cause my death thereby.’ So blood gushed from the wound. There was a tent in the Mosque belonging to Banu Ghifar who were surprised by the blood flowing towards them. They said, ‘O people of the tent! What is this thing which is coming to us from your side? Behold was flowing profusely out of Sa’d wound. Sa’d then died because of that.’ “

 

Speaking about this battle, the Glorious Qur’an says,

“Assuredly Allah did help you in many battle-fields and no the Day of Hunain: behold: your great numbers elated you but they availed you naught; that land, for all that if is wide, did constrain you, and ye turned back in retreat. But Allah did pour His clan on the Messenger and on the Believers, and sent down forces, which ye saw not: He punished the unbelievers: thus doth He reward those without faith. Again will Allah, after this, turn (in mercy) to whom He wills; for Allah is Off-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (At-Tawabah:25-27)”

According to the majority of scholars of Siyrah, the battle of Hunain took place in Shawwal, AH.

THE OCCASION OF THE BATTLE

When Hawazin, a neighboring tribe of Mecca, heard the news of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and the Conquest of Mecca, they made an agreement with another tribe from Ta’if, called Thaqif, to fight the Muslims and destroy them before they could spread their religion throughout Arabia. Other tribes joined these two tribes.

Malik Ibn Awf, the chief of Hawazin, put forward a plan. He ordered his men to bring their families and belongings with them thinking that his would compel his men to fight fiercely. Durayd, an old, blind man, blamed him for doing so arguing that,” If a man is so cowardly as to leave the battle, then he will leave his family as well. The women and children will be a great worry for us and if we are defeated all our wealth will fall into the enemy hands.” But Malik ignored this advice and stuck to his original plan.

When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) heard what the enemy tribes were planning, he found himself forced to fight and ordered his army towards Ta’if,

THE MARCH OF THE MUSLIM ARMY

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), arched with 200 Maccans and 10.000 of his Companions who had gone out with him when he conquered Mecca; 12.000 in all The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) left in charge of Mecca Attab Ibn Asid Ibn Abdu Al-Is Ibn Umayyah to look after the men who had stayed behind. Then he went forward to meet Hawazin.

THE COMMENCE OF WAR

According to Ibn Ishaq, Jabir Ibn Abdullah who witnessed Hunain, said,”When we approached the vallay of Hunain we come through a valley wide and sloping. We were descending gradually in the morning twilight. Then enemy had got there before us and had hidden themselves in it by paths and side tracks and narrow places. They had collected and were fully prepared, and by Allah we were terrified when, as we were coming down, the squadrons attacked us on man, the people fled none heeding the other. The men ran away except that a number of Muhajrun and Ansar and men of his family remained with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The Muhajirun who stood firm were Abu Bakr and Umar: of his family Ali, Al- Abbas, and Abu Sufyan Ibn Al-Harith and his son and Al-Fadl Ibn Abbas, Rabi Ibn Al- Harith, Usamah Ibn Zaid and Ayman Ibn Umm Ayman Ibn Ubaid who was killed that day.

On seeing the men fleeing, The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) withdrew to the right and said, “Where are you going, men? Come to me. I am Allah’s Messenger. I am Muhammad the son of Abdullah.” And not for nothing did the camels bump one into the other In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq who said, “I heard Al-Bara’ narration when a man come and said to hi, ‘O Abu Umara! Did you flee on the day of Hunain?’ Al-Bara’ replied, ‘I testify that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not flee, but the hasty people hurried away and the people of Hawazin threw arrows at them. At that time, Abu Sufyan Ibn Al-Harith was holding the whit mule of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) by the head, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was saying, “I am the Prophet undoubtedly: I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib.Finally a hundred men were gathered by him and they went forward and fought. At first the cry was, ‘to mw, Ansar!’ And finally, ‘to me Khazraj!’ They were steadfast in the fight. The men went on fighting and those who has run away returned; they found only prisoners handcuffed with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Manyu disbelievers were killed and they were defeated. Allah granted His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) their property and children as booty.

 According to Al-Bukhari, Abu Qarada narrated,”We set out along with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) during the year of Hunain, and when we faced the enemy, the Muslims (with the exception he Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and some of his companions) retreated (before the enemy). I saw one of the pagans over-powering one of the Muslims, so I struck the pagan from behind his neck causing his armor to be cut off. The pagan headed towards me and pressed me so forcibly that I felt as if I was dying. The death took him over and he released me.

Afterwards I followed ‘Umar and said to him, ‘What is wrong wit the people?’ He said, ‘It is the Order of Allah, Then Muslim returned the the battle after the fight and after overcoming the enemy the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sat and said,

Whoever had killed on Infidel and has an evidence to this issue, will have the Sulb (the belonging of deceased e.g., clothes, arms, horse, etc).”

I said, ‘Who will be my witness?’ and then sat down. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) repeated his question. The the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said the same for the third time. I got up and said, ‘Who will be my witness?’ and then sat down. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked his former question again. So I got up. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, ‘What is the matter, O Abu Qatada?’ So I narrated the whole story; A man said, ‘Abu Qatada has spoken the truth, and the Salab of the deceased is with me, so please compensate Abu Qatada on my behalf.’ Abu Bakr said, ‘No! By Allah, it will never happen that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) will leave a Lion of Allah who fights for the Sake of Allah and His Messenger and give his spoils to you.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,”Abu Bakr has spoken the truth. Give it the spoils back to him O man.”So he gave it to me and I bought a garden in Banu Salamah with it the spoils and that was the first property I got after embracing Islam.”

When the spoils were collected, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered his Companions to take it to Al-Ja’franah. Mas’ud Ibn Amr Al-Ghigari was put by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in charge of the spoils.

THE DEVISION OF THE SPOILS

 In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated the following ahadith that refer to the division of the spoils at Hunain: Marawan and Al-Miswar Ibn Makrama narrated that when the delegate of Hawazin come to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) declaring their conversion to Islam and asked him to return their properties and captives, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up and said to him,

There Is involved in this matter, the people whom you see with me, and the most beloved talk to me, is the true one. So choose one of two alternatives: Either the captives or the properties. I have been waiting for you (have not distributed the booty).”

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had delayed the distribution of their booty over ten nights after his return form Ta’if. So when the came to know that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was not going to return to them but one of the two, they said, “We prefer to have our captives.” So Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up amongst the Muslims, and praising Allah as He deserved, said,

To proceed! Your brothers have come to you with repentance and I see (it logical) to return their captives. So, whoever of you likes to do that as a favor then he can do it. And whoever of you likes to stick to his share until we give him form the very first booty which Allah will give us, then he can do so.” and again said, “We do not know which of you have agreed to it and which have not; so go back and let your chiefs forward us your decision.”

They went back and their chief’s spoke to them, and they return to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and informed him that all of them had agreed (to give up their captives) with pleasure, and had given their permission (that the captives be returned to their people).

Anas narrated that when it was the day of Hunain, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) confronted the tribe of Hawazin while there ten-thousand men besides the Tulaqa (those who had embraced Islam on the day of the Conquest of Mecca) with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. When they fled, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,”O the group of Ansar!”the replied,”Labbaik (here we are at your service), O Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Sa’daik! We are under your command.”Then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,”I am Allah’s servant and His Messenger.”

Then the pagans were defeated. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) distributed the war booty amongst the Tulaqa’ and Muhajirun and did not give anything to the Ansar. So the Ansar spoke (were dissatisfied) and he called them and made them enter a leather tent and said,

Won’t you be pleased that the people take the sheep and camels, and you take Allah’s Messenger along with you?” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) added, “If the people took their way through a valley and the Ansar took their way through a mountain pass, then I would choose a mountain pass of the Ansar.”

Anas also narrated that when it was the day of the Conquest of Mecca Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) distributed the war booty amongst the people of Quraish, which caused the Ansar to become angry, So The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

Won’t you be pleased that the people take the worldly things and you take Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) with you.”

They said, “Yes” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

If the people took their way through a valley or mountain pass I would take my way through the Ansar’s valley or mountain pass.”

 

According to the scholars of Siyrah, the battle of Mu’tah was in 8th year of Hijra, Urwah Ibn Al-Zubair said that the the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent this expedition to Mu’tah in Jumadah Al-Ula the 8th year of Hijra and put zaid Ibn Harithah in command and said,

“If Zaid were slain, then Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib was to take command, and if he were killed then Abdullah Ibn Rawahah.”

People prepared themselves to set off. Their number was 3000. When they were about to see off, they bade farewell the Messenger’s chiefs and saluted them. Then, the people marched forth, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) accompanying them until he said farewell and returned.

They went on their way as far as Ma’an in Syria where they heard that Hereaclius had come down to Ma’ab in the Balqa’ with 100000 Greeks Joined by 100000 men form Lakhm, Judham, Al-Qayn, Bahra and Bali. When the Muslims heard this they spent two nights at Ma’an pondering what to do. Abdullah Ibn Rawahah encouraged the men saying, Men, what you dislike is that which you have come out in search of, viz, martyrdom. We are not fighting the enemy with numbers, or strength of multitude, but we are confronting them with this religion with Allah had honored us. So come on! Both prospects are fine: Victory or martyrdom. Then men said, ‘By Allah Ibn Rawahah is right.’

Then people went forward until when they were on the borders of the Balqa’ the Greek and the Arab forces of Heraclius met them in a village called Masharif. When the enemy approached, the Muslims withdrew to a village called Mu’tah. There the forces met and the Muslims made their dispositions, pitting over the right wing Qutbah Ibn Qatadah of Banu Udhrah, and over the left wing an Ansari called Ubaya Ibn Malik.

When fighting began Zaid Ibn Harithah fought bolding the Messenger’s standard, until he died from loss of blood among the spears of the enemy. Then Ja’far took it and fought with it until he was martyred. Abdullah Ibn Rawahah took the standard, fought until he died a martyr. In this context, Al-Bukhari the following narrations:

Nafi narrated that Ibn Umar informed me that on the day of the battle of Mu’tah he stood beside ja’far who was dead (killed in the battle), and he counted fifty wounds in his body, caused by stabs or strokes, and none of those wounds was in his back. Abdullah Ibn Umar said, Allah’s Messenger appointed Zaid Ibn Harithah as the commander of the army during the Ghazwah of Mu’tah and said, If Zaid is martyred, Ja’far should take over his position, and if Ja’far is martyred, Abdullah Ibn Rawahah should take over his position.  Abdullah Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) further said, ‘I was present amongst them in that battle and we searched for Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib and found his body amongst the bodies of the martyred ones, and found over ninety wounds over his body, caused be stabs or shots (of arrows).’

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had informed the people of the martyrdom of Zaid, Ja’far and Ibn Rawahah before the news of their death reached. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, Zaid took the flag (as the commander of the army) and was martyred, then Ja’far took it and was martyred, and then Ibn Rawahah took it and was martyred. At the time, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) eyes were shedding tears. Then flag was taken by a sword amongst the Swords of Allah (Kahlid bin Walid) and Allah made them (the Muslims) victorious. Amrah said, ‘I heard Aishah saying, ‘When the news of the martyred of Ibn Harithah, Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib and Abdullah Ibn Rawahah reached, Allah’s Messenger sat with sorrow exlicit on his face. Aishah added, ‘I was then peeping through a chink in the door. A man came to him and said. ‘O Allah’s Messenger! The women of Ja’far are crying.’ Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told him to forbid them to do so. So the man went away and returned saying, ‘I forbade them but they did not listen to me.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered him again to go (and forbid them). He went again and came saying, ‘By Allah, they overpowered me (did not listen to me)’ Aishah said that Allah’s Messenger said (to him), Go and throw dust into their mouths.  I said, ‘My Allah put your nose in the dust! By Allah, neither have you done what you have been ordered, nor have you relieved Allah’s Messenger from trouble.’

Amir said that whenever Ibn Umar greeted the son of Ja’far, he used to say (to him).  Assalam Alaika (peace be on you), O the son of two-winged person.  

Khaliid Ibn Ll-Walid (may Allah be pleased with him) said, ‘On the day of the battle of Mu’tah, nine swords were broken in my hand, and nothing was left in my hand except a Yemenite sword of mine.’

Prophet Said,Uhud is a mountain that love us and is love by us,”

In this hadith, according to a group of Muslim scholars, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) meant his family – not the mountain itself – for the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to pass by it when returning from traveling. On the other hand, some scholars say that what is meant in the above hadith is the mountain of Uhud itself. The latter quote the following Qur’ainc verse to support their opinion,

“And others (rocks) which sink for fear of Allah. (Al-Baqrah: 74)”

Quraish made the raid of Uhud in Shawwal, 3 AH. Regarding the Battle of Uhud, Allah, Most High, has revealed the following Qur’anic verses:

“(Remember that morning) thou didst leave thy household (early) to post the faithful at their stations for battle: and Allah hearth and knowth all things! Remember two of your parties mediated cowardice; but Allah was their protector, and in Allah should the faithful (ever) put their rust. Allah and helped you at Badr, when ye were helpless: then fear Allah: thus may ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the faithful: ‘Is it not enough for you that Allah should help you with three thousand Angles (specially) sent down?’ Yea, if you remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angles clearly marked…….. Allah will not leave the believers in the sate in which ye are now, until He separates what is evil form what is good nor will Allah disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen. (Al-Imran: 121-179)”

THE OCCASION OF UHUD

The scholars of Siyrah said that when the survivors of the gathered to speak with Badr returned to Mecca, they gathered to speak with Abu Sufyan. They said,”Muhammad has killed our men, so help us fight him so that we may avenge those we have lost. “In order to achieve their avowed goal, they agreed that everyone who had has a share in the caravan who had has a share in the caravan should put his Profits towards the cost of a new army, which would be three times as big as the on at Badr.

In this context, Allah, Most High, has revealed in the Glorious Qur’an,

“This unbelievers spend their wealth to hinder (men) from the path of Allah, and so will they continue to spend; but in the end they will have (only) regrets and sighs; at length they will be overcome: and the unbelievers will be gathered together to Hell. (Al-Anfal: 36)”

Among those who joined the new army was an Abyssinian slave called Wahshi, who was known for his accuracy with the spear. His master, jubar Ibn Al-Mut’im said to him, “Go with the army and if you kill Hamzah, the uncle of Muhammad, in revenge for my uncle’s death, I will set you free.”

When Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan, heard about this she sent a message to Wahshi to say that she would clothe him in gold and silk if he would carry out his master’s wish, for she, too, wanted Hamzah dead because the latter had killed both her father and brother. Quraish marched forth with the flower of their army, and their black troops, and their adherents from the tribe of Kinanah, and the People of Tuhamah, and women in howdahs went with them to stir up their anger and prevent their running away. They went forward until they halted at Aynayn on a mount in the valley of Al-Sabkhah by the said of the valley opposite Madina.

MUSLIMS PREPARED THEMSELVES FOR FIGHTING

On the other side, when the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) heard about Quraish, and the Muslims had encamped, he said to them,

“By Allah, I have seen (in a vision) something that argues will. I was cows, and I was a dent in the blade of my sword, and I interpreted that to mean Medina.”

Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated this on the authority of Abu Musa (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

“I saw in a dream that I moved a sword and its blade got broken, and that symbolized the casualties which the believers suffered on the day of Uhud. Then I moved it had been, and that symbolized the Conquest (of Mecca) which Allah helped us to achieve, and the union of all the believers. I (also) saw cows in the dream, and what Allah does is always beneficial. Those cows appeared to symbolize the faithful believers (who were martyred) on the day of Uhud.”

When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gathered his Companions around him to discuss what they would do, he though it would be better to wait for the enemy inside the city rather than go out to meet them because it would be easier to defend Medina form inside the city walls. But the young Muslims were eager to go out and face Quraish. The said, “O Messenger of Allah, lead us out against our enemies, or else they will think we are too cowardly and too weak to fight them. “When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saw that the majority were in favor of going out to meet Quraish, he decided to do so.

Meanwhile, the people had repented of their design, saying they thought they had persuaded the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) against his will, which they had ho right to do so, so that when he went out to them they admitted that and said that if he wished to remain inside the city, they would not oppose him. Then, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pointed out,

“It is not fitting that a prophet who has put on his armor should lay it aside until he has fought.”

Therefore, he marched out with a thousand of his Companions, until when they reached Al-Shaout between Medina and Uhud, Abdullah Ibn Ubai withdrew with a third of the men.

About those who withdrew with Ibn Ubai, Allah, Most High, says in the Glorious Qur’an,

“(What ye suffered on the day the two armies met, was with the leave of Allah, in order that He might test the believers) and the hypocrites also. These were told: ‘Come, fight in the way of Allah, or (at least) drive (the foe from your city).’ They said: ‘Had we know there would be a fight, we should certainly have followed you.’ They were that day nearer to unbelief than to faith, saying with their lips what was not in their hearts. But Allah hath full knowledge of all they conceal. (Al-Imran: 167)”

“Why should ye be divided onto two parties about the hypocrites? Allah hath cast them off for their (evil) deeds. (An-Nisa: 88)”

Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Zaid Ibn Thabit (may be pleased with him) who said, “When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out for (the battle of) Uhud, some of those who had gone out with him, returned. The Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) were divided into two groups: One group said, ‘We will fight them (i.e., the enemy),’ and other group said, ‘We will not fight them.’ So there came the Divine Revelation:

“Why should ye be divided onto two parties about the hypocrites? Allah hath cast them off for their (evil) deeds. (An-Nisa: 88)”

On that the Prophet said,

“That is Taibah (city of Medina) which clears one from one’s sins as the fire expels the impurities of silver.”

According sUrwah Ibn Musa, when Ibn Ubai and his companions returned, the tribe of Salamah and tribe of Harithah almost tried to give up the fight, therefore Allah, Most High, revealed the following Qur’anic verse,

“Remember two of your parties mediated cowardice; but Allah was their Protector, and in Allah should the faithful (ever) put their trust. (al-Imran: 122)”

Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Qur’anic verse:

“Remember two of your parties mediated cowardice; but Allah was their Protector, and in Allah should the faithful (ever) put their trust. (al-Imran: 122)”

was revealed in our connection, i.e., the tribe of Salamah and the tribe of Harithah, and I would not have liked that if it was not revealed, for Allah said: “But Allah was their Protector…….”

The remainder of the Muslims went on until they reached the mountain of Uhud. There the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered them to stand in ranks in front of the mountain, so that they would be protected from behind. He then positioned fifty archers on the top of the mountain.

In Al-Bukhar’s Shaih, we read the following narration on the authority of Al-Bara’ (may Allah be pleased with him) who said, “we faced the pagans on that day of Uhud and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) placed a batch of archers (at a special place) and appointed Abdullah (Ibn Jubair) as their commander and said,

“Do not leave this place: and if you should see us conquering the enemy, do not leave this place, and if you should see them conquering us, do not (come to) help us,”

So, when we faced the enemy, they took to their heel until I was their women running towards the mountain, lifting up their clothes from their legs, revealing their leg-bangles. The Muslims started saying,”The booty, the booty!”Abdullah Ibn Jubair said,”The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had taken a firm promise from me not to leave this place.” But his companions refused (to stay). So when they refused to stay there), Allah confused them so that they could not know to go, and they suffered seventy casualties. Abu Sufyan ascended a high place and said, ‘Is Muhammad present amongst the people?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, ‘Do not answer him’ Abu Sufyan said, ‘Is the son of Abu Quhafah present among the people?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, ‘Do not answer him’ Abu sufyan said, ‘Is the son of Al-Khattab amongst the people?’ He then added, ‘All these people have been killed, for, were they alive, they would have replied.’ On that, Umar could not help saying “You are a lair, O enemy of Allah! Allah has kept what will make you unhappy.’ Abu Sufyan said, ‘Superior may be Hubal (their idol)!’ On that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said (to his Companions), ‘Reply to him.’ They asked, ‘What may we say?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

Say: Allah is more Elevated and more Majestic!’

Abu Sufyan said, ‘We have (the idol) Al-Uzzah, whereas you have no ‘Uzzah!’ the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, (to his Companions), ‘Reply to him, ‘They said, ‘What may we say?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

‘Say: Allah is our Helper and you have no helper.’

Abu Sufyan said, ‘(This) day compensated for your loss at Badr and (in) the battle (the victory) is always undecided and shared in turns by the belligerents. You will see some of your dead men mutilated, but neither did I urge this action, nor am I sorry for it.’“

At Uhud, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) refused the participation of some young Muslims, like Abdullah Ibn Umar and Usamah Ibn Zaid, for the too young to participate in fighting. Quraish mustered their troops about 3.00 men with 200 horses, which they had led along with them. Their cavalry on the left flank was commanded by Khalid Ibn Walid: and on the right by Ikrimah Ibn Abi Jahl.

When the Muslims were in position, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) held up his sword and said, “who will use this sword with its right?” This was a great honor and many men rose to claim it, but the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) decided to give it to Abu Dujanah who asked, “What is its right, O Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) answered, “That you should smite with it until it bands.”

Now, Abu Dujanah was a brave and conceited man in battle and wherever he put on a red turban of his people know that he was about to fight. He then began to strut up and down between the lines when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) siad,

“This is a gait which Allah hates exception an accasion like this.”

As the fighting increased, the Quraish women, led by Hind, began to beat their drams to urge their men on. On his part, Abu Dujanaj siad,”I saw someone urging the enemy on, shouting wildly, and I made for him, but when I lifted my sword against him he screamed and I saw that it was a woman; I respected the Messenger’s sword too much to use it on a woman.” That woman was Hind.

THE MURDER OF HAMZA

As usual, Hamza, the Prophet’s uncle fought with great courage, but while leading the Muslims in firece attack, which nearly defeated the enemy, he was suddenly and cruelly struck down by the slave Wahshi.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the outhority of Ja’far Ibn Amr Ibn Umaiyyah who said,”I went out with Ubaidullah Ibn AL-Khaiyar. When we reached Hims (i.e., a town in Syria), Ubaidullah Ibn Adi Said (to me), ‘Would you like to see Wahshi so that we may ask him about the killing of Hamzah?’ I replied, ‘Yes.’ Wahshi used to live in Hims. We inquired about them and somebody said to us, ‘He is that in the shade of his palace, as if he were a full water skin.’ So we went up to him, and when we were at a short distance from him we greeted him and he greeted us in return. Ubaidullah was wearing his turban and Wahshi could not see except his eyes and feet. Ubaidullah said, ‘O Wahshi! Do you know me?’ Wahshi looked at him and then said, ‘No, by Allah! But I know that Adi Ibn Al-Khiyar married a woman called Umm Qital, the daughter if Aby Al-Is, and she delivered a boy from him at Mecca, and I looked for a wet nurse for that child. (Once) I carried that child along with his mother and then I handed him over to her, and your feet resemble that child’s feet,’ Then ‘Ubadullah uncovered his face and said (to Wahshi), ‘Will you tell us (the story of) the killing of Hamzah?’ Wahsi replied, ‘Yes, Hamzah killied Tuaima Ibn Adi Ibn Al-Khayar at the Battle of Badr so my master, Jubair Ibn Mut’ im said to me, ‘If you kill Hamzah in revenge for my uncle, then you will be set free.’ When the people set out (fro the battle of Uhud) in the year if Ainain (Ainain is a mountain neat the mountain of Uhud and between it and Uhud there is valley), I went out with the people for the battle. When the army aligned for the fight, Siba’ came out and said, ‘Is there any (Muslim) to accept my challenge to a duel?’ Hamzah Ibn Abdul Muttalib coem out and said, ‘O Siba’ O Ibn Umm Anmar, teh one who circumcised other ladies! Do you challenge Allah and His Messenger?’ Then Hamzah attacked and killed him, causing him to be non-extant like the bygone yesterday. I hid myself under a rock, and when he (i.e., Hamzah) came near me, I threw my spear at him, driving it into his umbilicus so that it came out through his buttocks, causing him to die. When all the people returned to Mecca, I too returned with them. I stayed in Mecca until Islam spread in it (i.e., Mecca). Then I left for Ta’if and when the people of Ta’if sent their messenger to Allah’s Messenger, I was told that the Prophet did not harm the messengers; So I too went out with them until I reached Allah’s Messenger. When he saw me, he said, ‘Are you Wahshi?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said ‘Was it you who killed Hamzah?’ I replied, ‘What happened is what you have been told of.’ He said, ‘Can you hide your face from me?’ So I went out when Allah’s Messenger died, and Musailamah Al- Kadhdhab appeared (claiming to be a prophet), I said, ‘I will go out to Musailamah so that I may kill him, and make amend for killing Hamzah. So I went out with the people (to fight Musailamah and his followers) and then famous events took place concerning that battle. Suddenly, I saw a man (Musailamah) standing near a gap in a wall. He looked like an ash-colored camel and his hear was disheveled. So, I threw my spear at him, driving it into his chest in between his breasts until it passed out through his shoulders, and then an Ansari man attacked him and struck him on the head with a sword. Abdullah Ibn Umar said, ‘A salve girl on the roof of a house said: Alas! The chief of the believers (i.e., Musailamah) has been killed by a black slave.”

THE MURDER OF MUS’AB BIN UMAIR

Mus’ab Ibn Umair (may be pleased with him) fought in the defense of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) until he was killed. The one who killed him was Ibn Qami’ah Al-Laythi, who thought he was the Messenger of Allah, so he returned to Quraish and said,” I have killed Muhammad.

Al-Bukhari narrated that Sa’d Ibn Ibrahim said that a meal was brought to Abdur-Rahman Ibn Awf while he was fasting. He saaid,”Mus’ab Ibn Umair was martyard, and he was better than I, yet he was shrouded in Burda (clothe sheet) so that, if his head was covered, his feet become naked, and if his feet were covered, his head become naked.”

Abdur-Rahman added,”Hamazah was martyred and he was better then I. The worldly wealth was bestowed upon us and we were given thereof too much. We are afraid that the reward of our deeds has been given to us in this life.” ‘Abdur-Rahman then started weeping so much that he left the food. When Mus’ab was killed, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave the standard to Ali, and Ali and the Muslims fought on. The unbelievers were soon scattered and forced to retreat. It looked as thought they had been defeated seeing this forty of the fifty Muslim archers on the top of the mountain ran down from their position to collect booty, for the army of Quraish had left many of their belongings behind. The archers rushed to take what they could, forgetting the Prophet’s orders.

Khalid Ibn Walid, Commander if the Quraishi cavalry, saw what was happening and quickly turned his men around and ordered them to attack the Muslims from behind. The Muslims were taken completely by surprise. The Quraish then began attacking from both sides at once. Many Muslims were killed and instead of winning they began to lose the battle. The Muslims were put to fight and the enemy slew many to them.

It was a day of trial and testing in which, Allah, Most High, honored several with martyrdom, until the enemy got the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who was hit with a stone so that he fell on his side and one of his teeth was smashed, his face scored and his lip injured. The man who wounded him was Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pointing to his broken canine tooth said,

“Allah’s wrath has become sever on the people who harmed His prophet. Allah’s wrath has become severe on a man who is killed by the Messenger if Allah in Allah’s cause.”

Meanwhile, Allah, Most High, revealed the following Qur’anic verse (in which He addresses His Prophet) saying,

“Not for thee, (but for Allah), is the decision whether He turns in mercy to them, or punish them; for they are indeed wrong-doers. (Al-Anfal: 128)”

According the scholars at Siyrah, when the enemy hemmed the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in he said, “Who will sell his life for us?” At this, five of the Ansar got up and fought until they were killed, one by one. Their places were soon taken, however, by a number of Muslims who drove off the attacked. Amongst, the defending Muslims was Abu Duhanah who put his arms around the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and made himself into a human shield. Arrows were falling on his back as he leaned over the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) until there were many stuck in it.

Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas shot his arrows in defense of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He said, “I have seen him handing me the arrows as he said, ‘Shoot, many my father and my mother be your ransom, ‘until he would even hand me an arrow that had no head, saying, ‘shoot with this.’“

Al-Bukhri narrated on the authority of Ali (may Allah be pleased with him),”I have never heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) mentioning his father and mother for anybody other than Sa’d Ibn Malik. I heard him saying on the day of Uhud, ‘O Sa’d throw (arrows)! Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you!’“ To add to confusion, it was rumored that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had been killed. When the Muslims heard this they were at a loss to know what to do. Anas Ibn An-Nadr (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “O people! If Muhammad had been killed what will your lives be worth without him? Don’t think about living or dying. Fight for Allah. Get up and die the way Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) died.”Then he persisted in fighting until he died a martyr. Regarding those who said that they should go back to their people because Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had killed, Allah Most High, revealed the following Qur’anic verse,

“Muhammad is no more than a Messenger: many were the Messengers that passed away before him. If he died or was slain, will ye then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back his heel, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve him) with gratitude. (Al-Imran: 144)”

According to Al-Bukhari, Anas narrated that when it was the day of Uhud, the people left the the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) while Abu Talhah was in front of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) shielding him with his leather shield. Abu Talhah was a skillful archer who used to shoot violently. He broke two or three arrow bows on that day. If a man carrying a quiver full of arrows passed by, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would say (to him), put (scatter) its contents for Abu Talhah. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would raise his head to look at the enemy, whereupon Abu Talhah would say, “Let me father and mother be sacrificed for you! Do not raise you head, lest an arrow of the enemy should hit you. my neck rather than your neck,” I saw Aishah, the daughter of Abu Bakr, and Umm Sulaim rolling up their dressed so that I saw their leg-bangles while they were carrying water skins on their back and emptying them in the mouths of the (wounded) people. They would return to refill them and again empty them in the mouths of the (wounded0 people. The sword feel from Abu Talhah’s hand twice or thrice) on that day)

Moreover, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Abu Talhah his saying,”On the day of Uhud, I was amongst the people who fell asleep to the extent that my sword fell down from my hand more than on time.”

In this context, we read in the Glorious Qur’an,

“After (the excitement of) the distress, He sent down calm on band of you overcome with slumber, while another band was stirred to anxiety by their own feelings, moved by wrong suspicions of Allah – suspicions due to ignorance. They said: ‘Have we any hand in the affair?’ say thou: ‘ Indeed, this affair is wholly Allah’s.’ They hide in their minds what they dare not reveal to thee. They say to (to themselves); ‘If we had had anything to do with this affair, we should not have been in the slaughter here. ‘Say: ‘Even you had remained in your homes. those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death’; but (all this was that Allah might test what is in your breasts and purge what is in your hearts. For Allah knoweth well the secrets of your hearts. Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met, – it was Satan who caused them to fail, because f some (evil) they had done. But Allah has blotted out (their fault): for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Forbearing. (Al-Imran: 154-155) “

Uthman Ibn Muhab also narrated that a man come people perform the Hajj to (Allah’s) house. Seeing some people sitting, he said, “Who are these sitting people?”Somebody said, “They are the people of Quraish.” He said, “Who is the old man?”They said,”Ibn Umar.”He went to him and said,”I want to ask you about something: will you tell me about it? I ask you with the respect due to the sanctity of this (Sacred) House, do you know that Uthman Ibn Affan fled on the day of Uhud?” Ibn Umar said,”Yes.”He said.”Do you know that he was absent from the Battle of the Badr and did not join it?”Ibn Umar said,”Yes.”He said,”Do you know that he failed to be present at the Ridwan pledge of allegiance (i.c., pledge of allegiance at (Hudaibiyah ) and did not witness it?” Ibn Umar replied,”Yes”He than said,”Allahu-Akbar (Allah is the Greatest)!” Ibn Umar said,”Come along: I will inform you and explain to you what you have asked. As for the flight (of Uthman) on the day of Uhud, I testify that Allah forgave him. As regards his absence from the Badr, he was married to the daughter of Allah Messenger and she was ill, so that Prophet said to him, ‘You will have such reward as a man who has fought the Badr battle will get, and will also have the same share of the booty.’ As for his absence form the Ridwan Pledge of allegiance, if there had been anybody more respected by the people of Mecca than Uthman Ibn Affan, The Prophet would surely have sent that man instead of Uthman. So the Prophet (i.e., Uthamn to Mecca) and the Ridwan Pledge of allegiance took place after Uthman had gone to Mecca. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) raised his right hand saying, “This is the hand of Uthman.” and clapped it over his other hand and said, “This is for Uthman.” Ibn Umar than said (to the man), “Go now, after taking this information.”

On the day of Uhud, victory was first on the side of the Muslims. Allah, Most High, says,

“And did indeed fulfill His Promise to you when ye with His permission were about to annihilate your enemy, until ye flinched and fell to disputing about the order and disobeyed it after He brought you in sight (of the victory) which ye covet. Among you are some that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you. But He forgave you: for Allah is full of grace to those who believe Behold! Ye were climbing up the high ground, without even casting a side glances at any one, and the Messenger in your rear was calling you back. There did Allah give you one distress after another by way of requital, to teach you no to grieve for (the booty) that had escaped you and for (the ill) that had befallen you. For Allah is well aware of all that ye do. (Al-Imran: 152-153) “

CONSEQUENCES OF THE BATTLE

The Battle came to an end. About seventy Muslims were martyred on that day. In the Sahih of Al-Bukhari, we of read the following narrations:

Qatadah narrated that Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) told us that seventy from the Ansar were martyred on the day of Uhud, and seventy on the day (of the battle) Bir Ma’unah, and seventy on the day of Al-Yamama.

Jabir Ibn Abdullah narrated that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to shroud two martyrs of Uhud in one sheet and then say, “Which of them know Qur’an more?” When one of two was pointed out, he would put him first in the grave. Then he said,

“I will be a witness for them on the Day of Judgement.”

He ordered them to be buried with their blood (on their bodies). Nether was the funeral Prayer offered for them, nor were they washed. Jabir added, “When my father was martyred, I started weeping and uncovering his face. The Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stopped me from doing so but the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not stop me. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

“(O Jabir) don’t weep over him, for the Angels kept on covering him with their wings until his body was carried away (for burial)”

According to the scholar of Syirah, this battle took place in Rajab, in 9th year of Hijra

OCCASION OF THE BATTLE

When Allah, Most High, ordered the believers to prohibit the disbelievers from entering or coming near the sacred Mosque, Quraish thought that this would reduce their profits from trade. Therefore, Allah, Most High, compensated them and ordered them to fight the people of the Book until they embrace Islam or pay the Jizah, Allah. Most High, says,

“O ye who believe! Truly the pagans ore unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the sacred Mosque. And if ye fear poverty, soon will Allah enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for Allah is All-knowing, All-Wise. Fight those who believe not in Allah not the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, no acknowledge the religion of Truth, from among the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission. and feel themselves subdued. (At-Tawbah: 28-29)”

Therefore, The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) decided to fight the Romans in order to call them to Islam. Allah Most High, says,

“O Ye who believer! Fight the unbelievers who are near to you and let them find harshness in you: and know that Allah is whit those who fear Him. (At-Tawbah: 123)”

Moreover, Allah, Most High, urges the believers to go forth to fight in the Cause of Allah’s saying,

“Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the cause of Allah. That is best for you, if ye (but knew). If there had been immediate gain (in sight), and the journey easy, they would (all) without doubt have followed thee, but the distance was long (and weighed0 on them. They would indeed swear by Allah, ‘If we only could, we should certainly have come out with you: ‘They would destroy their own souls; for Allah doth know that they are certainly lying. (At-Tawbah: 41-42)”

“It is not for the believers to go forth together if a contingent form every expedition go forth to devote themselves to studies on religion, and admonish the people when they return; that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil). (At-Tawbah: 122)”

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered his Companions to prepare to fight Romans at a time when men hard pressed; the heat was oppressive and there was drought; fruit was ripe and the men wanted to say in the shade with their fruit disliked traveling it that season.

Unlike his previous experiences, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in formed his Companions by the people whom he were going to fight because the journey was long, the season difficult, and the enemy in great strength, so that the men could make suitable preparations.

One day when he was making his arrangements, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to a man called Jadd of the tribe of Qays Ibn Salamah, “Would you like to fight the tribe al Al-Asfar, Jadd?’ He replied, ‘Will you allow me to stay behind and not tempt me, for every one knows that I am strongly addicted to women and I am afraid that if I see the Roman women and I shall not be able to control my self.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave him permission to remain behind and turned away from him. It was about him, Allah Most High, revealed the following Qur’anic verse,

“Among them is (many) a man who says, Grant me exemption and draw me not into trial. Have they not fallen into trial already? And indeed Hell surrounds the unbelievers (on all sides). (At-Tawbah: 49) “

The hypocrites and one to another, ‘Don’t go froth in heat.” Therefore, Allah, Most High, revealed in their connection,

“They said, Go not forth in heat. Say, The fire Hell is fiercer in heat, if only they could understand. Let them laugh they could understand. Let them laugh a little: Much will they weep: a recompense for the (evil) that they do. (At-Tawbah: 81-82)”

Moreover, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) urged his wealthy Companions to spend in the Way of Allah. According to Ibn Hisham, Uthman (may Alah be pleased with him) spend 1000 Dinar in the cause of Allah on the day of Tabuk when the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “O Allah, may you be pleased with Uthman for I am pleased with him ”

THE WEEPERS

In the Glorious Qur’an Alllah, Most High, refers to this group of Muslims, saying,

“When Surah comes down, enjoining them to believe in Allah and to strive and fight along with His Messenger, those with wealth and influence among them ask thee for exemption, and say, ‘leave us (behind). ‘They prefer to be with (the women) who remain behind (at home): Their hearts are sealed and so they understand not. But the Messenger, and those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons, for them are (all) good things: and it is they who will prosper. Allah hath prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein: that is supreme triumph. And there were, among the desert Arabs (also), men who made excuses and came to claim exemption: and those who were false to Allah and His Messenger (merely) sat behind: soon will a grievous chastisement seize the unbelievers among them. There is no blame on those who are infirm, or ill, or who find no resources to spend (on the Cause), if they are sincere (in duty) to Allah and His Messenger: no ground (of complaint) can there be against such as do right: and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Nor (is there blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mounts. And when thou saidst, ‘I can find no mounts for you,’ they turned back, their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they had no resources therewith to provide the expenses. The ground (of complaint) is only against such as claim exemption while they are rich. They prefer to stay with the (women) who remain behind: Allah hath sealed their hearts: so they know not. (At-Tawbah: 86-93) “

According to Ibn Ishaq, the weepers were seven men form the Ansar and other tribe. Yemin Ibn Umayr Ibn Ka’b mat Abu Laylah and Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal as they were weeping, and when he asked what they were crying fro the told him that they had applied to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for a mount, but that he had none to give them and they had nothing. Thereupon he gave them a watering camel, and they saddled it and provided them with some dates and so they went off with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated that Abu Musa said, ‘We a group lf Al-Ash’aryun people went to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and asked him to give us something to ride, but the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took an oath that he would not give us anything to ride. After a while, some camels of booty were brought to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and he ordered that five camels be given to us. When we took those camels we said, ‘We have made the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forget his oath, and we will not be successful after that.’ So, I went to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and said, ‘O Allah Messenger! You took an oath that you would no give us anything to ride, but you have given us . He said, ” Yes, for if I take an oath and later I see a better solution than that, I act on the later (and gave the expiation of that oaths. ” Some Bedouins came to apologize for not going, but Allah will not accept their excuse.

THE MUSLIM ARMY GOES FORTH

When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) road was clear he determined to set off. Now there was a number of Muslims who were slow to make up their minds so that they lagged behind without any doubt or misgivings. They were Ka’b Ibn Malik, Murara Ibn Ar-Rabi, and Hilal Ibn Umayyah. Their story, however, will be mentioned later in details.

When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had set out, he pitched his camp by Thaniyatul-wada. Abdullah Ibn Ubbai Ibn Salul pitched his camp separately below him in the direction of Dhubab. When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went on, Ibn Salul separated from him and stayed behind with the hypocrites and doubters.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) order Ali to remain in Medina on order to look after his family. Al- Bukhari narrated that Sa’d said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out for Tabuk, appointing Ali as his deputy in Medina. Ali said, ‘Do you want to leave me with the children and women?’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Will you not be pleased that you will be to me like Aaron to Moses? But there will be no Prophet after me.” Abu Khaithamah, according to Ibn Ishaq, returned to his family on a hot day some days after the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had set out. He found two wives of his in huts in his garden . Each had sprinkled her hut and cooled it with water and got ready food for him. When he arrived, he stood at the door of the hut and looked at his wives and what they had done for him and said, ‘The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is out on the sun and the wind and the heat and Abu Khaithamah is in a cool shade, food prepared for him, resting in his property with a fair women. This is not just. By Allah, I will not enter either of your huts, but join the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) so get ready some food for me.’ They did so and he went to his camel and saddled it and went out in search to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) until he overtook him in Tabuk.

Ymayr Ibn Wahb Al-Juhani had overtaken Abu Khaithamah on the road as he came to find the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and they joined forces; when they approached the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as he was stopping in Tabuk, the army called attention to a man riding on the way and the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “It would be Abu Khaithmah,” and so it was. Having dismounted he came and saluted the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who said, “Woe to you, Abu Khaitham!” Then he told the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) what happened, and he spoke well and blessed him.

Then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) continued his journey and men began to drop behind. When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was told that so-and -so had dropped behind said, “Let him; for if there is any good in him Allah will decree him to join you, of not, Allah had rid you of him!” Finally, it was reported that Abu Dharr had dropped behind and his camel had delayed him. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said the same words. Abu Dharr waited on his camel and when it walked slowly with him he took his gear and loaded it on his back and went off walking in the track of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stooped at one of his halting-places when a man came his attention to someone walking on the way alone. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said that he hoped it was Abu Dharr, and when the people had looked carefully they said that it was he. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Allah have mercy on Abu Dharr. He walks alone and he will die alone and be raised alone.”

THE PROPHET COMMANDS HIS COMPANIONS NOT TO DRINK THE WATER OF AL-HIJR

According to Ibn Ishaq, When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed Al-Hijr he stooped, and men got water from its well. When they went, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Do not drink any of its water nor use it for ablutions. If you have used any of it for dough, then feed it to the camels and eat not of it, Let none of you go out at night alone but take a companion.” In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated that Ibn Umar said, ‘When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed by Al-Hijr, he said, “Do not enter the dwelling places of those people who were unjust to themselves unless you enter in a weeping state lest the same calamity as of theirs should befall you.” The he covered his head and made his speed fast until he crossed the valley.’ When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) reached Tabuk, Yuhanna Ibn Ru’ba governor of Ayla came and made a treaty with him and paid him the Jizyah. The people of Jarba and Adhrah also came and paid the Jizyah.

KHALID-IBN-ALWALEED GOES FORTH TO UKAYDIR AT DUMA

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent Khaild bin Walid to Ukaydir at Duma. Ukaydir Ibn Abdul-Malik was a Christian. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told Khalid that he would find him hunting wild cows. When Khalid went forth, he found Ukaydir and his brother hunting wild cows as the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told him. Khalid and his companions seized Ukaydir and killed his brother. Ukaydir was wearing a gown of brocade covered with gold. Khalid stripped him of this and sent it to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Then Khalid brought Ukaydir to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who spared his life and made peace with him on condition that he paid the Jizyah.

RETURN TO MADINA

According to Ibn Ishaq, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed some ten nights, not more. Then retuned to Medina. Ib Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ans Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) that the latter said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) returned from the Ghazwa of Tabuk, and when he approached Medina, he said, “There are some people in Medina who were with you all the time, you did not travel any portion of the journey nor crossed any valley, but they were with you.” The said, ‘O Alla, Messenger! Even though they were at Medina?’ He said, “Yes, because they were stopped by a genuine excuse.” Abu Humaid also narrated that, ‘We returned in the company of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) from the Ghazwa of Tabuk, and when we looked upon Medina, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “This is Taba (Medina) and this is Uhud, a mountain that loves us and is loved by us.” As-Saib Ibn Yazid said, ‘I remember that I went out with the boys to (the place called) Thaniyat-ul-Wada’ to reveive Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).’

THE THREE REPENTANT MUSLIMS

As we have said before, the three Muslims who were slow to make up their minds that they logged behind at Tabuk without any doubt or misgivings are: Ka’b Ibn Malik, Marara Ibn Ar-Tabi and Hilal Ibn Umayyah.

According to Al-Bukhari, Abdullah Ibn Ka,b Ibn Malik, Who, from among Kab’s sons, was the guide of Ka’b when he become blind, “I heard Ka’b Ibn Malik narrating the story of the Ghazwah Tabuk in which he failed to take part. Ka’b said, ‘I did not remain behind Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in any Ghazwah that he fought except the Ghazwah of Tabuk, and I failed to take part in the Ghazwah Badr, but Allah did not admonish anyone who had not participated in it, for in fact, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had gone out in search of the caravan of Quraish, but Allah made them the Muslims and their enemy meet without any appointment. I witnessed the night of Al-Aqabah (pledge) with Allah’s Messenger when we pledged for Islam, and I would not exchange it for the Badr battle although the Badr battle is more popular amongst the people than it (Aqabah pledge).

As for my news in the battle of Tabuk, I had never been stronger or wealthier than I was when I remained behind the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in that Ghazwa.

By Allah, never had I two she-camels before, but I had then at them time of this Ghazwah. Whenever Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) wanted to make a Ghazwah, he used to different Ghazwah until it was the time of that Ghazwah which Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought in severe heat, facing, a long journey, desert, and the great number of enemy So the Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) announced to the Muslims clearly so that they might get prepared for then Ghazwah. So he informed them clearly of the destination he was going to. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was accompanied be a large number of Muslims who could not be listed in a book namely, a register.’

Ka’b added, any man who intended to be absent would think that the matter would remain hidden unless Allah revealed it through Divine Revelation. So Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought that Ghazwah at the time when the fruits and ripened and the shade looked pleasant. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and his Companions prepared for the battle and I started to go out in order to get myself ready along with them, but I returned without doing anything. I would say to myself, ‘I cane do that.’ So I kept on delaying it every now and then until the people got ready and Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and the Muslims along with him departed, and I had not prepared anything for my departure, and I said, I will prepare myself (for departure0 one or two days after him and then join them.’ In the morning following their departure, I went out to get myself ready but returned having done nothing. Then again in the next morning, I went out to get ready but returned without doing anything. Such was the case with me until they hurried away and I missed the battle. Even then I intended to depart to take them over. I wish I had done so! But it was not in my luck. So, after the departure of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), whenever I went out and walked amongst the people (remaining persons), it grieved me that I could see none of those weak men whom Allah and excused. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) s did not remember me until he reached Tabuk, he said, ‘what did Ka’b do?’ A man from Banu Salamah said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! He has been stopped by his two Burdas (garments) and his looking at his own flanks with pride.’ Then Mu’adh Ibn Jabal said, ‘What bad thing you have said! By Allah! O Allah Messenger! We know nothing about him but good.’ Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) kept silent.’

Ka’b Ibn Malik added, ‘When I heard that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was on his way back to Medina. I got dipped in my concern, and began to think of false excuse, saying to myself, ‘How can I avoid his anger tomorrow?’ And I took advice of wise member of my family in this matter. When it was said that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had come out of this problem by forging a false statement. Then I decided firmly to speak the truth. So Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived in the morning, he used to visit the Mosque first of all and offer a two Rak’at Prayer therein and then sit for the people. So when he had done all that this time, those who had failed to join the battle Tabuk came and started offering false excuses and taking oaths before him. They were something over eighty men; accepted the excuses they had expressed, took their pledge of allegiance asked fro Allah’s Forgiveness for them, and left the secrets of their hearts fro Allah to judge. Then I came to him, and when I greeted him, he smiled a smile of an angry person and then said, ‘Come on.’ So I came walking until I sat before him. He said to me, ‘What stopped you from joining us. Had you not purchased an animal for carrying you?’ I answered, Yes, O Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)! But by Allah, if I were sitting before any person from among the people of the world other than you, I would have avoided his anger with an excuse. By Allah, I have been bestowed with the power of speaking fluently and eloquently, but by Allah, I know well that of today I tell you a lie to seek your favor, Allah would surely make you angry with me in the near future, but if I tell you the truth, though you will get angry because of it, I hope for Allah’s Forgiveness. Really, by Allah, there was no excuse for me. By Allah, I had never been stronger or wealthier than I was when I remained behind you.’ Then Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “As regards this man, he has surely told the truth, so get up until Allah decides your case.” I got up, and many of Banu Salamah followed me and said to me, By Allah we never witnessed you doing any sin before this. Surely, you failed to offer. Excuse to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as the others who did not join him, have offered. The Prayer of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to Allah to forgive you would have been sufficient for you.’ By Allah, they continued blaming me so much that I intended to return (to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and accuse myself of having told a lie, but I said to them, ‘Is there anybody else who has met the same fate as I have?’ They replied, ‘Yes, there are two men who have said the same thing as you have, and to both of them was given the same order as given to you.’ I said, ‘Who are they?’ they replied, Murara Ibn Ar-Rabi Al-Amri and Hilal In Umayyah Al-Waqifi By that they mentioned to me two pious men who who had attended the Ghazwah of Badr, and in whom there was an example fro me. So I did not change my mind when they mentioned them to me. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade all the Muslims to talk to us, the three aforesaid persons out of all those who had remained behind in that Ghazwah. SO we kept away from the people and they changed their attitude towards us until the very land (where I lived) appeared strange to me as if I did not know it.

We remained in that condition for fifty nights. As regards my two fellows, they remained in their boudes and kept on weeping, but I was they youngest of them and the firmest of them, so I used to go out and witness the Prayers along with the Muslims and roam about in the markets, but none would talk to me, and I would come to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and greet him while he was sitting in his gathering after the Prayer, and I would wonder whether the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did move his lips in return to my greetings or not. The I would offer my Prayer near to him and look at him stealthily. When I was busy with my Prayer, he would turn his face towards me, but when I turned my face to him, he would turn his face away from me. When his harsh attitude of the people lasted long, I walked until I scaled the wall of the garden of Abu Qatada who was my cousin and dearest person to me, and offered my greetings to him. Bay Allah, he did not return my greetings. I said, ‘O Abu Qatada! I beseech you by Allah! Do you know that I love Allah and His Messenger?’ He kept quiet. I asked him again, beseeching him by Allah, but he remained silent. Then I asked him again in the Name of Allah. He said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know it better.’ Thereupon my eyes flowed with tears and I returned and jumped over the wall.’


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